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Alfred Marshall, David R. Henderson
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Wanting to understand how markets adjust to changes in supply or demand over time, Marshall introduced the idea of three periods. First is the market period, the amount of time for which the stock of a commodity is fixed. Second, the short period is the time in which the supply can be increased by adding labor and other inputs but not by adding capital (Marshall’s term was “appliances”). Third, the long period is the amount of time taken for capital (“appliances”) to be increased.