Essai sur la Nature du Commerce in Général (Essay on the Nature of Trade in General)

Cantillon, Richard
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Henry Higgs, ed. and trans.
First Pub. Date
London: Frank Cass and Co., Ltd.
Pub. Date
Includes "Richard Cantillon and the Nationality of Political Economy," by W. Stanley Jevons (1881).

1. See Essai, p. 95. Postlethwayt and P. Cantillon have "2 acres".

2. The Supplement is missing. See p. 356.

3. The Essai says "un à un"—a printer's error, or a slip of the pen. Postlethwayt has "one million." See post, p. 385.

4. Published in 1691, Political Anatomy of Ireland, ch. ix.

Part II

5. 1 litron = 2 1/3 pints. Postlethwayt has "measures." [N.B. Higgs has translated "litron" as "quart."—Econlib Ed.]

Part III

6. See p. 358.

7. Newton's Report is dated Sept. 21, 1717.

8. Newton here sacrificed the substance to appearances. [Cantillon's footnote. All others are Higgs's footnotes.—Econlib Ed.]

9. The Bank of England is alluded to here and in the previous chapter as the Banque of Londres.

Jevons, "The Nationality of Political Economy"

Footnotes below are by Jevons except as noted.

10. M'Culloch's erroneous account of Cantillon has been unfortunately copied by Allibone in his Dictionary of English Literature.

11. "Correspondance Littéraire, Philosophique et Critique, de Grimm et de Diderot, depuis 1753 jusqu'en 1790, nouv. éd. Paris, 1829," t. I. (1753-6), pp. 332-41.

12. "Tracts relating chiefly to Ireland. By the late Sir William Petty. Dublin, 1769," p. 31.

13. The Petty Papers, edited by the Marquis of Lansdowne, Lond. 2 vols. 1927, fulfil this wish. H. H.

14. See Émil Weller's Dictionnaire des Ouvrages Français, portant de fausses indications des lieux d'impression, Leipzig, 1864, vol. II. p. 141.

15. Jevons, overlooked the reference to 1730 on p. 364 of the Essai. See also pp. 391-2. His error has been copied by M. Weulersee (who says Jevons wrote "about 1880") in his short notice of Cantillon in the Cyclopaedia of Social Sciences. New York, 1929. H. H.

16. Traité des Monneyes, Paris, 1662, (later editions 1711, 1714, 1723). A practical little book on the working of a mint. H. H.

Higgs, "Life and Work of Richard Cantillon"

Footnotes below are by Higgs except as noted.

17. Letters and Journals of W. S. Jevons, 1886, p. 125.

18. Vol. VI, 1892, Boston, Mass. pp. 436-456.

19. His assertion that Cantillon travelled to America, India, Persia, China, Japan, etc., would be a new fact if correct, but is, as the context shows, a misreading of the passage in the Harvard article following my statement that Travel and Trade were two of Cantillon's great teachers, op. cit. p. 440.

20. Arthur Young mentions a parish named Cantillon near Bridgend in Glamorganshire: A Six Weeks' Tour through the Southern Counties of England and Wales 3rd edition, London, 1772, p. 164. But the family is undoubtedly of French extraction.

21. Dossier bleu 3889.

22. Marquess Townshend MSS, 11th Report Historical MSS Commission, IV. 157.

23. Bibl. Nat. Fm. 2740.

24. Marriage settlement dated 16 February 1722.

25. Dict. of National Biography, s.v. "Cantillon."

26. Bibl. Nat. Fm. 2740. This document is interesting because Cantillon drew up a memorandum on the working of the foreign exchanges as a basis for his advocate's brief.

27. See "Mémoire pour Jean et Remi Carol frères, banquiers à Paris, contre Richard Cantillon, marchand mercier à Paris.... Paris, 1730, chez André Knapen, 1730," 32 pp. fol. Bibl. Nat. Fm. 2838.

28. See for this Econ. Journ. 1891, p. 279 etc.

29. The coins of December 1719 were on 1 March 1720 of the value of 65 livres the marc of eight ounces of silver. By Arrêt of the 5th they were fixed at 97 l. 10 sols. By Arrêt of the 11th idem they were to shrink by degrees to 32 l. 10 sols. at the end of the year.

30. Dictionary, s.v. "Coin."

31. C 11/111/5.

32. See Chancery Bill 1752, folios 424-55, Hughes v. Countess of Stafford and others. Philip Cantillon, described as a bankrupt, is one of the "others". I have been guided to this reference by the aid of Mr J. A. Langley, the present Assistant Paymaster General of the Supreme Court.

33. Townshend MSS, cit. p. 365, ante, pp. 237-8.

An entry in the executor's accounts: "By an Undertaker for burying the Remains of the said Richard Cantillon £6. 2s. 6d.," suggests that the burial took place in London.

34. An account of the trial will be found in "The Proceedings at the Sessions... for the City of London... 4th to 7th December 1734, No. 1, Part II. London, Prtd for John Roberts... 1734. Price Six Pence," 4to, pp. 5-15

35. Somerset House Probate Registry, vol. Ducie 95, May 1735.

36. Copy in the Goldsmiths' Library. The Act describes Henrietta as now about six years of age.

37. For this will see Somerset House Probate Registry, vol. Wake 154 and vol. Cheslyn, 1761.

38. See p. 365 ante.

39. Somerset House Probate Registry, vol. Stevens, 1773.

40. One of Wren's steeple churches. It was burned down in 1886 and not rebuilt. Old Fish Street has now been replaced by Queen Victoria Street. See G. B. Besant, City Churches, London 1926, pp. 62-63.

41. Letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, ed. W. Moy Thomas, London, 1861, I. 468. In 1741, writing from Rome to her brother, she says, "If you should happen to see Mrs Bulkeley, I wish you would make her some compliment," id. II. 86.

42. Letters, ed. Cunningham, London, 1857, I. 241-2.

43. Op. cit. II. 153. See also I. 298.

44. M. 780. Probably circa 1750. For the original French see Econ. Journ. loc. cit.

45. In view of these positive statements by a man who was most likely to be curious about the author of the manuscript he was jealously guarding I am unable to understand why Dr Cannon surmises that Cantillon did not himself translate the Essay. Review of Economic Theory, 1929, pp. 19, 65.

46. I owe this reference to Dr Hayek.

47. Copies of the ambassador's letters were kindly sent to me by Mr C. F. Weston Underwood, of Somerby Hall, Brigg.

48. P. 262.

49. Review of Economic Theory, 1929, p. 19. Dr Cannan observes that the Essai soon sunk into oblivion "probably in part owing to its mongrel Franco-English character" (op. cit p. 19), but its French is quite passable. Mirabeau expressly says Cantillon knew the language perfectly. See Econ. Journ. I, p. 268.

50. Memoires de Morellet t. I, pp. 37-38, 1823.

51. See Higgs, The Physiocrats, pp. 19-25.

52. Leipzig, 1902, p. 279.

53. Palgrave's Dict. of Pol. Econ. s.v. Say, J. B.

54. Palgrave's Dict. of Pol. Econ. s.v. French School of Political Economy.

55. For a more detailed examination of this see Higgs, "Cantillon's Place in Economics," Harvard Quarterly Journal of Economics, Boston, Mass., vol. VI. pp. 436-456, 1892.

End of Notes.

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