The Coal Question

William Stanley Jevons
Jevons, William Stanley
(1835-1882)
CEE
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Editor/Trans.
First Pub. Date
1865
Publisher/Edition
London: Macmillan and Co.
Pub. Date
1866
Comments
2nd edition.

1. [1] Examiner, May 19th, 1866.

2. [2] House of Commons, April 17th, 1866.

3. [3] Fortnightly Review, Dec. 31, 1865, p. 143.

4. [4] See p. 20 infra.

Chapter II

5. [5] Vol. xii. p. 547.

6. [6] P. 94.

7. [7] P. 97.

8. [8] See also his Address to the Geological Society, Feb. 19th, 1841, p. 41.

9. [9] Smiles' Engineers, vol. iii. pp. 18, 22.

10. [10] Treatise on the Coal Trade, quoted in Appendix to J. Williams' History of the Mineral Kingdom: Edinburgh, 1810, vol. ii. p. 267.

11. [11] Edinburgh Review, vol. cxi. p. 84, note. This estimate, however, seems to refer to Durham only, and to a later year than 1801. See John Bailey, "General View of the Agriculture of the County of Durham," 1810, p. 28.

12. [12] Annals of Philosophy, December, 1814.

13. [13] Introduction to Geology, p. 192.

14. [14] Report on Coal Trade, 1830, p. 77. Edinburgh Review, vol. li. p. 190. M'Culloch's Dictionary, art. Coal.

15. [15] Report on Coal Trade, 1830.

16. [16] T. Y. Hall. Transactions of the North of England Institute of Mining Engineers, 1854. Fordyce, History of Coal, Coke, and Coal-Fields: Newcastle, 1860, p. 32.

17. [17] T. Y. Hall. Transactions of the North of England Institute of Mining. Engineers, 1854. Fordyce, History of Coal, Coke, and Coal-Fields: Newcastle, 1860, p. 32.

18. [18] The Coal-Fields of Great Britain, by Edward Hull, B.A. 2d Ed. p. 161. (Stanford.)

19. [19] A History and Description of Fossil Fuel: 1835, chap. xxiv, p. 454.

20. [20] Fourth Edition, vol. i. p. 600.

21. [21] 1846, p. 163.

22. [22] As suggested by Mr. Sopwith at the British Association in 1838.

23. [23] Coal-Fields of Great Britain, 2d Ed. p. 187.

24. [24] Inconsiderable amounts.

25. [25] Journal of Science, No. I. p. 33.

26. [26] Journal of Science, No. I. p. 29.

27. [27] Journal of Science, No. I. p. 30.

28. [28] Trans. of the North of England Institute of Mining Engineers, vol. x. p. 74. (1862.)

29. [29] Coal-Fields of Great Britain, 2d Ed. p. 236.

30. [30] The calculation is not strictly correct.

31. [31] P. 237.

32. [32] Journal of Science, No. I. p. 35.

33. [33] Conybeare and Phillips, Outlines of Geology, pp. 324, 325.

Chapter III

34. [34] E. Hull, British Association, 1854, Report, p. 87.

35. [35] The Geology of Parts of Middlesex, Hertfordshire, &c. by William Whitaker, B.A. F.G.S. 1864, p. 107. (Geological Survey.)

Chapter IV

36. [36] Vol. CX. p. 329.

37. [37] Coal-fields, &c. 2d Ed. p. 219.

38. [38] Report of Commission on Health of Mines, 1865.

39. [39] Our Coal and our Coal-pits. London: 1853.

40. [40] Prof. H. D. Rogers, in Good Words, April, 1864, p. 338.

41. [41] Trans of the North of England Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. V.

42. [42] Brit. Assoc. Report, 1863, pp. 726, 727.

43. [43] Our Coal and our Coal Pits, p. 113.

44. [44] Ibid. p. 115.

45. [45] Manchester Memoirs, 3d series, 1861-2. Vol. II. pp. 256, 257.

46. [46] Dr. Plot's Natural History of Staffordshire, quoted in the "History of Wednesbury," p. 101.

Chapter V

47. [47] Evidence of Alex. Raby. First Report on Coal Trade, 1800, pp. 76, 77.

48. [48] See Chap. XV.

49. [49] Metallum Martis, p. 8.

50. [50] Mineral Statistics for 1860, p. xxiii.

51. [51] The comparison in the First Edition of the change of price of coal with the average change of price of commodities was erroneous, owing to a numerical oversight. The fall of prices between 1794 and 1860 was in the ratio of 100 to 81. See Journal of the Statistical Society, June 1865, p. 294.

Chapter VI

52. [52] Macmillan's Magazine, June, July, 1863.

53. [53] Smiles' Engineers, vol. i. Pref. p. v.

54. [54] Taylor's Archæology of the Coal Trade, p. 186, in Memoirs of the British Archæological Association, 1858.

55. [55] Hooson's Miner's Dictionary, 1747, quoted by Taylor, p. 187.

56. [56] Scotch Coal Trade, p. 12.

57. [57] See Burns "On the late Captain Grose's Peregrinations." "A faulding jocteleg." In some parts of Yorkshire a large clasp-knife is still known as a "jack-a-leg's knife."

58. [58] Smiles' Industrial Biography, p. 68.

59. [59] Smiles' Industrial Biography, p. 33.

60. [60] Lives of the Engineers, vol. i. pp. 39, 40.

61. [61] Ibid. p. 66.

62. [62] Ibid. Pref. p. vi.

63. [63] Bald, Scotch Coal Trade, p. 7.

64. [64] Lives of the Engineers, vol. i. p. 276.

65. [65] The Trades' Increase, p. 7.

66. [66] Campbell's Survey, vol. i. p. 15.

67. [67] Smiles' Engineers, vol. i. Pref. p. vi.

68. [68] Barlow's Cyclopædia, p. 521.

69. [69] Joshua Gee, The Trade and Navigation of Great Britain considered. 1738, 4th ed. p. 18.

70. [70] Taylor's Archæology of the Coal Trade, p. 186.

71. [71] Jewell House of Art and Nature, No. 21. London.

72. [72] Life of Watt, 1839, p. 46.

73. [73] Mr. Dircks in his new Life of the Marquis of Worcester strangely overlooks this work of Isaac de Caus.

74. [74] Rymer's Fœdera, vol. xviii. p. 992; or, Calendars of the State Paper Office, Domestic Series.

75. [75] H. Dircks, Life of Worcester, p. 354.

76. [76] Page 6.

77. [77] Pages 35, 36

78. [78] Miner's Friend. Prefatory Address to the Royal Society.

79. [79] See Dr. Plot's account of the artisans of Wolverhampton, Walsall, and the Neighbourhood, Natural History of Staffordshire, p. 376. Also Smiles' Lives of Boulton and Watt, p. 163.

80. [80] Briavoinne, De l'Industrie en Belgique, Bruxelles, 1839, p. 201.

81. [81] Toilliez 'Mémoire sur l'Introduction des Machines à Vapeur dans le Hainaut." Quoted by Briavoinne, p. 226.

82. [82] Bald on the Scotch Coal Trade, p. 24.

83. [83] Smiles' Lives of the Engineers, vol. i. p. 206.

84. [84] Smiles' Lives of the Engineers, vol. i. pp. 344-361.

85. [85] Ibid. vol. i. p. 401

86. [86] Coal Viewer's and Engine Builder's Practical Companion, 1797.

87. [87] Report of British Association, 1863, p. 760.

88. [88] C. Beaumont, Treatise on the Coal Trade, 1789, p. 2.

89. [89] Smiles' Engineers, vol. iii. p. 357.

90. [90] Smiles' Engineers, vol. ii. p. 355.

91. [91] Ibid. vol. i. p. 126.

92. [92] Hearn's Plutology, 1864, p. 193.

93. [93] Two Lectures on Iron and its Applications. Newcastle, 1864, p. 15.

94. [94] Smiles' Engineers, vol. i. pp. 332, 333.

95. [95] Fairbairn on Mills and Mill-work.

96. [96] Smiles' Engineers, vol. iii. p. 440.

97. [97] Ibid. p. 8.

98. [98] Liebig's Letters on Chemistry, pp. 152, 153.

Chapter VII

1. [1] See for instance the remarks of Waterston in his Cyclopædia of Commerce, 1846, pp. 163, 164.

2. [2] Farey, Treatise on the Steam-Engine, p. 117.

3. [3] Smiles' Engineers, vol. i. pp. 329, 330.

4. [4] C. W. Williams, The Combustion of Coal, 1841, p. 9.

5. [5] Taylor's Records of Mining, p. 152, &c. Much confusion has been introduced into these accounts by the change of measure from bushels to cwts. In March 1866 the average duty of 27 Cornish engines was only 51.7 millions per 112 lbs. and the highest duty 64.6 millions. The performance of an engine easily falls back.

6. [6] W. J. M, Rankine on the Air-Engine. Report of the British Association, 1854, p. 159.

7. [7] James Nasmyth, in Tooke's History of Prices, vol. vi. p. 533.

8. [8] W. J. M. Rankine, British Association, 1854, p. 159.

9. [9] A new air-engine is said to be successfully working, but it burns nearly 4 lbs. of coal per horse-power per hour. Mining Journal—Supplement, 12th May, 1866.

10. [10] Gentleman's Magazine, 1819, part 2, p. 632.

11. [11] Porter's Progress, 1851, p. 575.

12. [12] Chap. xv.

Chapter VIII

13. [13] Lardner, On the Steam Engine, 7th ed. 1840, p. 8.

14. [14] See "Economy of Manufactures," § 17, et passim. In this exquisite work Mr. Babbage anticipates the modern doctrines of the relations of the natural forces.

15. [15] Life of Telford. Telford's Memorandum Book, p. 671.

16. [16] Truran on the Iron Manufacture of Great Britain, p. 242.

17. [17] C. M. Palmer, Report of the British Association, 1863, p. 697.

18. [18] See a curious account in the British Museum, under the name Stevin, 1652.

19. [19] Smiles' Engineers, vol. iii. p. 73.

20. [20] Plutology; or, the Theory of Efforts to satisfy Human Wants. By W. E. Hearn, LL.D. Professor of Political Economy in the University of Melbourne, 1864, p. 199. This work appears to me both in soundness and originality the most advanced treatise on political economy which has appeared, and it should be familiar to every student of the science.

21. [21] Smiles' Engineers, vol. i. p. 458.

22. [22] Fairbairn on Mills and Mill-Work, p. 89.

23. [23] See p. 103.

24. [24] No. 186, p. 263, Jan. 1687.

25. [25] See the patent of 1631, in Rymer's Fœdera.

26. [26] Harleian Miscellany, vol. iv. p. 526.

27. [27] Miner's Friend, pp. 28, 29.

28. [28] See chap. xv.

29. [29] Chadwick, Report of the Brit. Assoc. 1861, p. 210.

30. [30] Smiles' Engineers, vol. i. p. 67.

31. [31] Barlow's Cyclopædia.

32. [32] First edition, p. 105.

33. [33] See the Journal "Engineering," 30th March, 1866, p. 195.

34. [34] Letters on Chemistry, No. 12.

35. [35] Taylor's Archæology of the Coal Trade, p. 176.

36. [36] Percy's Metallurgy, vol. i. pp. 71, 72.

37. [37] Watt's Chemical Dictionary, Article Fuel.

38. [38] Industrial Resources of Ireland, 1st ed. chap. ii.

39. [39] Economy of Manufactures, 3rd ed. 1833, § 465.

40. [40] Liebig's Letters on Chemistry, No. 12, p. 154.

Chapter IX

41. [41] See the chapter on Invention in Mr. Hearn's Plutology.

42. [42] Resources of the three Northern Rivers, quoted in the Quarterly Journal of Science, No. 2, p. 371.

Chapter X

43. [43] H. Fairbairn, Political Economy of Railroads, 1836, p. 116.

44. [44] Ibid. p. 108.

45. [45] Preface to Census Returns of 1841, pp. 34-37.

46. [46] 1701-1861 including army, &c. abroad: Census of 1861, General Report, p. 22. See the Diagram fronting the title-page.

47. [47] General Report upon the Census of 1861. p. 22.

48. [48] Census of 1861. Population Tables, vol. i. p. xviii. The negative sign (-) indicates a decrease of population, as in the cases of Cambridge, Norfolk, and Wiltshire.

49. [49] Porter's Progress (1851), p. 91.

50. [50] Increase due to the cotton distress.

51. [51] Ed. 1847, p. 96.

52. [52] The negative sign (—) indicates a decrease of population.

53. [53] Census of Scotland, Population Tables, p. xlii.

54. [54] Lives of the Engineers, vol. ii. p. 291.

55. [55] Preliminary Observations to Population Abstracts, 1822, p. xxx.

56. [56] Quarterly Report of the Registrar-General, 1849.

57. [57] Bromwell on Immigration, p. 176.

58. [58] Census of 1861. Population Tables, vol. i. p. xxxii.

59. [59] Abstract of Seventh Census of the United States, p. 14.

60. [60] Including, in the American authority, "the small number at older ages."

61. [61] Census, 1861. Appendix to General Report, p. 111.

Chapter XI

62. [62] M. N. Briavoinne, De l'Industrie en Belgique. Bruxelles, 1839, p. 197.

63. [63] Average of 1841-9.

64. [64] Page 53.

65. [65] The Prosperity of the Landholders not dependent on the Corn Laws. By Thomas Jevons, 1840, pp. 7-11.

66. [66] See the able investigation by Frederick Purdy, Esq. of the Statistical Department of the Poor Law Board, On the Decrease of the Agricultural Population, 1851-61; British Association, 1863, p. 157. Journal of the Statistical Society, September, 1864, p. 388

67. [67] Mineral Statistics. The amounts for previous years are estimates collected from several well-known works.

68. [68] Progress of the Nation, 1847, p. 587.

69. [69] First Report of the Commissioners of Customs, 1857, p. 108. See the diagram fronting the title-page, in which the divergent character of our progress is shown to the eye by curves representing the numbers of the population, the official value of our imports, and the vend of coal from Newcastle.

70. [70] Decrease.

71. [71] M'Culloch's Account of the British Empire; Darton's Tables, p. 30.

72. [72] Rate as for ten years.

73. [73] Decrease.

Chapter XII

74. [74] T.J. Taylor, Archæology of the Coal Trade, pp. 177 and 204, in Memoirs of the British Archæological Association, 1858. See the diagram fronting the title page.

75. [75] Including 7,562,963 tons of railway borne coal.

76. [76] Mineral Statistics for 1855. Introd. p. vi.

77. [77] Statistical Account, vol. i. p. 599. This later estimate is substituted for the one given in the Mineral Statistics.

78. [78] Proposed long ago by Mr. Chapman. See Holmes, Treatise on the Coal Mines of Durham and Northumberland. London, 1816, p. 218.

79. [79] Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom, 1864, p. 91

80. [80] Mineral Statistics for 1860, p. 99.

81. [81] P. 68.

82. [82] The Coal Fields of Great Britain, 2d Ed. pp. 28, 236.

83. [83] These numbers are represented to the eye in the diagram fronting the title-page.

84. [84] The sum of the geometrical series, in millions of tons,

or, which is exactly the same, the value of the definite integral

in which the constant 82.17 has been determined so that

85. [85] See pp. 23-31.

86. [86] See p. 83.

87. [87] Mineral Statistics, Passim.

88. [88] P. Cooper, Mining Journal, Jan. 21, 1865.

Chapter XIII

1. [1] Situation de l'Industrie Houillère en 1859, p. 8.

2. [2] Situation de l'Industrie Houillère en 1859, p. 53.

3. [3] Ryder. Treatise on the Economy of Fuel on board Men-of-War Steamers, p. 3.

4. [4] Second Report on the Coal-Trade, 1800, p. 22.

5. [5] Brand's History of Newcastle, vol. ii. p. 286.

6. [6] Babbage in Barlow's Cyclopædia, 1851, p. 55.

7. [7] Dunn on the Winning and Working of Coal Mines, p. 338.

8. [8] Smiles' Lives of the Engineers, vol. iii. pp. 38-41.

9. [9] Report on the Coal-Trade, 1830.

10. [10] Trans. N. of England Institute of Mining Engineers, vol. vi. p. 106.

11. [11] Observations on the proposed Duties on the Exportation of Coals. London, 1842, pp. 14, 15.

12. [12] The Present State of the Manufacture of Salt Explained. By the Earl of Dundonald. London: 1785.

13. [13] Braithwaite Poole. On the Commerce of Liverpool, 1854, p. 33.

14. [14] Smiles' Engineers, vol. i. p. 447.

15. [15] Hearn's Plutology, p. 310, quoting Journal of the Statistical Society, vol. xx. p. 134.

16. [16] Commercial Reports from Foreign Consuls, 1862, p. 155

17. [17] Committee on Manufactures, 1833. Queries, 7,420-5, &c.

18. [18] The Trades' Increase, p. 25.

19. [19] The Trades' Increase, p. 2.

20. [20] The Mischief of the Five-Shilling Tax upon Coal. London, 1699, p. 3

21. [21] Ibid. p. 5.

22. [22] The Mischief of the Five-Shilling Tax upon Coal. London, 1699, p. 5.

23. [23] Ibid. p. 6.

24. [24] Situation de l'Ind. &c. p. 27.

25. [25] Memorial of the Manufacturers of the Tyne, of iron, lead, glass, rope, alkali, sail-cloth, &c. (1842?)

26. [26] Situation de l'Industrie Houillère en 1859.

Chapter XIV

27. [27] Reports respecting Coal, 1866, p. 147.

28. [28] Hull, Coal Fields of Great Britain, 2d ed. p. 29; and Situation de l'Ind. &c. p. 111, quoting a report of M. Gonot, Ingénieur en chef des Mines du Hainaut, 1858.

29. [29] Edinburgh Review, vol. cxi. p. 88

30. [30] 1st ed. 1848; 2d ed. revised by S. O. Haldeman

31. [31] Situation de l'Industrie Houillère en 1859, p. 9.

32. [32] Report of the South Shields Committee, 1843.

33. [33] Situation de l'Industrie Houillère en 1859, p. 15.

34. [34] Statistics of Coal, 1st ed. p. 275, quoted by the Edinburgh Review, vol. xc. p. 534.

35. [35] Situation de l'Industrie Houillère, p. 7.

36. [36] Journal of Science, No. 2, pp. 337, 338.

37. [37] Coal-Fields of Great Britain, 2d ed. p. 208.

38. [38] Lyell, Manual of Elementary Geology, 1852, p. 333.

39. [39] Overman, On the Manufacture of Iron. p. 102.

40. [40] Overman, On the Manufacture of Iron, p. 462.

41. [41] Gesner, Practical Treatise on Coal, Petroleum, &c. New York 1861, p. 30.

Chapter XV

42. [42] Bacon.

43. [43] Hansard's Debates, vol. vii. p. 79

44. [44] See pp. 217-8.

45. [45] Newland and Backbarrow in Lancashire, Duddon in Cumberland, and Loon in Scotland, are the only charcoal furnaces in the United Kingdom. Mineral Statistics, 1863, p. 70.

46. [46] Quoted by M. A. Lower. Contributions to Literature, 1854, p. 120.

47. [47] Quoted by Smiles. Lives of the Engineers, vol. i. p. 292.

48. [48] Stowe's Annals, 1632, p. 1025.

49. [49] Surveyor's Dialogue, p. 175.

50. [50] Commercial Dictionary, Art. coal.

51. [51] Pp. 94, &c.

52. [52] Essay upon the Advancement of Trade in Ireland, Works, 1720, vol. i. p. 119.

53. [53] Statistics and Geography of the Production of Iron: New York, 1856, p. 7.

54. [54] Trade and Navigation of Great Britain, 1738, p. 104.

55. [55] Considerations on the making of Bar Iron with Pit or Sea Coal Fire, 1747.

56. [56] Houghton's Collection of Letters for the Improvement of Husbandry and Trade, 1727-1728, vol. iv. p. 259.

57. [57] The Costlie Whore, quoted by Percy, Metallurgy of Iron and Steel, p. 144.

58. [58] Metallum Martis, London, 1665, p. 8.

59. [59] Smiles' Industrial Biography, p. 77.

60. [60] Literature of Political Economy, p. 238.

61. [61] Chapter xi

62. [62] Report of the British Association, 1863, p. 738

63. [63] Smiles' Engineers, vol. ii. p. 61

64. [64] Percy's Metallurgy, Iron, p. 889.

65. [65] History of Wednesbury, p. 116.

66. [66] H. Blackwell, Iron-making Resources of the United Kingdom, 1852, p. 174

67. [67] Percy's Metallurgy of Iron and Steel, p. 187.

68. [68] Scrivenor on the Iron Trade, p. 301.

69. [69] Page 150.

70. [70] Blackwell, p. 165.

71. [71] Percy's Metallurgy of Iron, p. 564.

72. [72] Truran on the Iron Manufacture of Great Britain, pp. iii. iv.

73. [73] Canada at the Universal Exhibition of 1855, p. 296.

74. [74] Percy's Metallurgy, Iron and Steel, p. 382. The last remarks are mistaken in their present application, as will be explained in the following chapter.

75. [75] Percy's Metallurgy of Iron, p. 381.

Chapter XVI

76. [76] H. Fairbairn, Political Economy of Railroads, p. 113.

77. [77] Principles of Political Economy, book iii. chap. xvii; or, Essays on some unsettled Questions of Political Economy. Essay No 1.

The subject "Of the Competition of different Countries in the same Market" is treated by J. S. Mill. Principles, book iii. chap. xxv.

78. [78] John Houghton. Collection of Letters for the Improvement of Husbandry and Trade. London, 1681, pp. 35, 36.

79. [79] See the admirable lecture of Prof. J. E. Cairnes to the Dublin Young Men's Christian Association, "On Colonization and Colonial Government," Oct. 26th, 1864.

80. [80] Three Lectures on Wages. Preface, p. v.

81. [81] Chapter x.

82. [82] See American Finances and Resources. Letter No. V. of R. J. Walker, M.A. London, 1864, p. 13.

83. [83] Principles, &c. Book v. chap. x., Third edition, vol. ii. pp. 507,508.

84. [84] P. 308.

Chapter XVII

85. [85] Hansard's Debates, third series, vol. lxxvii. p. 478.

86. [86] Hansard's Debates, third series, vol. lxi. p. 448.

87. [87] Hansard's Parliamentary History, vol. xxiv. p. 1215.

88. [88] On the Scotch Coal Trade, p. 197.

89. [89] J. S. Mill, Principles of Political Economy, 3d Ed. vol. ii. p. 455.

90. [90] J. S. Mill, Principles of Political Economy, Book v. chap. vii. § 3.

End of Notes

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