Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States

Edited by: Lalor, John J.
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New York: Maynard, Merrill, and Co.
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Includes articles by Frédéric Bastiat, Gustave de Molinari, Henry George, J. B. Say, Francis A. Walker, and more.
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BADEN, a grand duchy situated in the southwest of Germany along the right bank of the Rhine. It has a superficies of 277 geographical square miles, with a population (December, 1875) of 1,507,179. The population, in 1816, was 1,005,898; in 1839, 1,277,403; in 1861, 1,369,291; in 1871, 1,461,428.


—Before 1866 the grand duchy was a member of the German confederation; from 1866 to 1870 it was an independent state; since January. 1871, it is a part of the German empire. It has 3 votes in the federal council, and sends 14 deputies to parliament.


—In all affairs not controlled by the laws and institutions of the empire, the country is governed by its own constitution, which dates from Aug. 22, 1818, and by its own laws. The constitution lodges the executive power in the grand duke. The legislative power is divided between him and the representatives of the country or the "estates," divided into two chambers. The grand duke attains his majority at 18 years of age. The succession follows in the male line of the house of Zaehring by right of primogeniture.


—The upper chamber is composed of princes of the blood, heads of 10 noble families; the Catholic archbishop, the superintendent of the Protestant church, the proprietors of hereditary landed estates worth 500,000 marks, 2 deputies of universities, and 8 members appointed by the grand duke without regard to rank or birth. The deputies of the universities are elected for 4 years, those of the landed nobility for 8. One-half the seats are vacated every 4 years. The appointments made by the grand duke are for 4 years.


—The second chamber is composed of 63 deputies. Elections are indirect. All citizens 25 years of age are electors of the first degree, and may be chosen electors of the second degree. All citizens 30 years of age are eligible to the office of deputy. Officials can not be elected in the districts where they serve. The term of each deputy is 4 years. One-half of the chamber is renewed every 2 years.


—The grand duke convokes, prorogues and dissolves the diet. In case of dissolution the temporary members of the first chamber must be replaced. The president of the upper chamber is appointed by the grand duke; the second elects its own president.


—The diet assists in the framing of laws, and in the discussion of the budget. Its-consent is necessary to the contracting of a loan, to sell state domains and to levy taxes. The budget is biennial. Every proposition concerning the finances is first presented to the second chamber. The bill which it has voted can be accepted or rejected only as a whole (en bloc) by the upper chamber. In case of rejection, the votes of the two chambers are counted together, the ayes and noes are summed up and the majority makes the law (such a case has not yet occurred).


—The chambers have the right of initiative in legislation. The second chamber may impeach the ministers. The chambers may receive petitions. Liberty of speech is guaranteed. Sessions of the chambers are public. In the interval between sessions a permanent committee represents the chambers. In case of urgency, its consent gives power to contract a loan. Its powers, however, are not extensive.


—At the head of the administration is the ministry of state or the council of ministers. The ministers are responsible.


—There are 4 ministerial departments: 1, of justice and foreign affairs; 2, of the interior; 3, of commerce; 4, of finance.


—For purposes of internal administration the country is divided into 54 bailiwicks (up to 1872 the number was 59). In each bailiwick, a district council (Bezirksrath), elected by the representatives of the circuit, assists the bailiff.


—The country is divided, besides, into 11 circuits, charged with attending to the common affairs of several bailiwicks. The circuit is represented through deputies, chosen by all electors, i.e., by representatives of the important cities, deputies of bailiwicks elected by the representatives of communes, and the principal land owners. This provincial assembly meets once a year, and decides questions relative to roads, schools, hospitals, asylums, orphan establishments and other common interests. It has the right to vote taxes. The administration of common affairs is intrusted to a permanent committee.


—Four commissaries general (Landesommissáire), sitting at Carlsruhe, Mannheim, Freiburg and Constance, supervise the administration of the bailiwicks and circuits.


—The number of communes is 1,584, of which 113 are cities. Communal administration, like that of the circuit, is founded on self-government. The government exercises supervision through the bailiff. Ordinary administration is in the hands of the burgomaster, and the municipal council elected by the inhabitants. The common council (Burgerausschuss), which is also elected by the inhabitants of the commune, has a certain right of control. In important cases all the inhabitants of a commune are called together in a general communal assembly.


—In the administration of justice, there is a supreme court (at Mannheim), six courts of appeal, and in each bailiwick a tribunal of the first resort (Amtsgericht). Crimes are tried with the assistance of a jury. Slight offenses are passed on by the mayors. There is a special administrative court, (Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for questions of public law or disputes relating to the administration.


—The civil code of Baden is based on that of France. In criminal and commercial matters the codes of the German empire are in force. Freedom of worship is recognized. Protestant worship is directed by the superior council of the Protestant church. The archbishop of Freiburg is the head of the Catholic church in Baden. The Protestants have 378 parishes; the Catholics, 660. The superior council of the Israelites is charged with the affairs of the Jewish church. In 1875 there were 517,851 Protestants, 958,907 Catholics, and 26,492 Israelites. The rest of the inhabitants belong to less extensive denominations. Public instruction is under the control of the state. The churches give religious instruction. Primary instruction is obligatory. In 1872 the common schools (Volksschalen) were 1,826 in number, with about 200,000 pupils. There are many higher primary schools. The secondary or middle schools are 19 in number, 17 of them give classical instruction mainly, the 2, under the name of real-gymnasium, pay more attention to the exact sciences. Eight of the first, which are called lyceums, include all the classes, and have the right of giving certificates of fitness (equivalent to the diploma of bachelor) for the university. The universities are at Heidelberg and at Freiburg: each one has 4 faculties. The theological faculty at Heidelberg is Protestant; at Frieburg, Catholic. The other faculties have not a sectarian character. At Carlsruhe there is a polytechnic school and a school of fine arts. Most of the cities of importance have schools of industry (Gerverbschulen), and each circuit has an agricultural school.


—Of the inhabitants (1,461,428) there were, in 1871,712,763 males and 748,665 females, making 295,709 families. The number of strangers was 54,988, of whom 42,003 belonged to other German states and 12,985 to states not German.


—There is an annual excess of births over deaths (in 1870, 58,913 births, against 48,024 deaths). The number of marriages in 1870 was 10,607. Among the births, 52,066 (or 88.4 per cent.) were legitimate, and 6,847 (or 11.6 per cent.) illegitimate. The number of still-born was 1,979.


—Emigration, directed mainly to the United States, was very considerable about 1850. It continues yet, but on a decreased scale, and without the country feeling it. The excess of births more than makes up for the loss.


—The population is undeniably prosperous. Landed property being greatly subdivided in most parts of the country, few great fortunes are met with, but a most general well-being. There are scarcely any beggars. The communes are obliged to maintain the indigent. They are aided by numerous hospitals and almshouses (131) as well as by other endowed institutions.


—About 50 per cent. of the population are engaged in agriculture, 35 per cent. in manufactures, 8 per cent. in commerce, and 7 per cent. is divided among the other professions.


—The German language is the only one spoken in the country. Fragments of three German tribes are met with: in the north, the Franconian tribe; in the centre and south, the Allemans, whose name has been given by the French to all Germans; and the Swabians in the southeast.


—The soil is generally fertile, especially in the valley of the Rhine. It is only the most elevated points of the Black Forest (in the south), and the Odenwald (in the north), which are stubbornly sterile. One-third of the soil is arable, one-third in forests, and one-tenth meadows; vineyards occupy 1.4 per cent. of the country (21,500 hectares); the rest is taken up with pasture, towns, villages, roads, rivers, etc. Besides the ordinary products of agriculture—cereals, vegetables, etc.—tobacco, hemp, chiccory, hops and other plants are cultivated in the lowlands of the Rhine. The vines yield a yearly average of 450,000 hectolitres of wine. There are about 70,000 horses, 600,000 oxen and cows, 170,000 sheep, 350,000 pigs, 60,000 goats, and 90,000 swarms of bees.


—The mineral products are inconsiderable. still the country possesses two great salt works which supply its wants, and a multitude of mineral springs, some of which enjoy a world-wide reputation (Baden-Baden, Rippoldsau, Petersthal).


—Manufactures are in a flourishing condition. The number of great industrial establishments is about 400. Textile fabrics of every kind are produced; also paper, machines, tools, leather, chemical products, jewelry, tobacco, etc.; in the valleys of the Black Forest, pendulums, clocks, music-boxes, straw hats, liqueurs, (Kirschwasser), etc. The clock makers of the Black Forest send the product of their industry abroad. They are found in European countries and even in America.


—Commerce is very active. Railroad traffic is very great. Much timber cut in the Black Forest is floated down the rivers. It descends the Rhine to Holland. Navigation on the Rhine is very important as far as Mannheim; it does not go much higher on account of the rapidity of the stream. Mannheim, thus forming the terminus of Rhine navigation, possessing an excellent harbor, becomes an important entrepôt.


—The country contains several large banking houses of which the principal are at Mannheim.


—The savings banks (to the number of 97) have a capital of 32,000,000 florins. The number of depositors is 107,000.


—The postoffice has delivered annually, from 1869 to 1871, about 19,000,000 letters, 12,000,000 newspapers, 3,000,000 packages, and postal orders to the amount of 5,000,000 florins.


—The number of telegraphic stations is (1872) 220; the number of dispatches sent is about 800,000 a year.


—The greater part of the revenue of the grand duchy of Baden is derived from direct taxes, including in such direct taxes, a land tax, called in the country Grundsteuer, and also from an income tax. About one-fourth of the receipts of the grand duchy of Baden comes from the produce of crown lands, forests and mines, and one-sixth from customs and miscellaneous sources. The following is the total of receipts and expenses of the grand duchy of Baden at different times:

Table.  Click to enlarge in new window.


It is proper to remark that the figures for 1850 and 1860 include the special budget of railroads, which amounted in receipts, as well as expenses, to 5,940,000 florins for 1850, and 6,830,000 florins for 1860.


—The budget has undergone profound changes through the entrance of the grand duchy into the German empire. The revenues from customs and indirect taxes (salt, beet-root sugar, stamps and drafts), as well as the post and telegraphs, figure there no longer, but go directly into the coffers of the empire. As an offset, the expense of administering these departments, as well as that of the army and foreign affairs, has disappeared. (See GERMAN EMPIRE.) The ordinary budget voted by the chambers for the year 1872 presents the following figures:

Domains, forests, mines and salt works... 4,260,000
Direct contribution*18... 5,220,000
Indirect contribution*19... 2,990,000
Taxes and fines... 1,570,000
Contributions of the empire for administration of customs... 630,000
Different revenues... 1,490,000
Total... 16,160,000
Railroads... 22,720,000
General total... 38,880,000


Collection of taxes... 4,730,000
Civil list... 840,000
Justice... 1,940,000
Interior... 2,950,000
(Of which 1,060,000 are for public education.)
Commerce... 2,020,000
(Of which 1,800,000 are for roads and water
courses, and specially half a million for the
Finances... 1,850,000
(Of which 990,000 are for the debt of the state.)
Contributions to the empire... 2,880,000
Various expenses... 90,000
Total... 17,300,000
Railroads (of which 16,220,000 are for administration
and extension, and 6,000,000 for interest
and sinking fund of the railroad debt)...
Grand total... 40,020,000


The result, a deficit of 1,140,000 florins, was covered by disposable funds.


—The extraordinary budget (public works) amounts to 1,400,000 florins a year. For the construction of new railroads and the management of the old, an expense of 24,000,000 florins is estimated for 1872 and 1873. This sum was to be covered by a sinking fund for railroads, and, in case of necessity, by loans.


—The receipts for 1877 were 34,188,865 marks, and the expenses about 34,750,123. The land tax and the income tax constitute the greater part of the revenue of the state. Most of the railways belong to the state. Their total receipts in 1877 amounted to 62,022,162 marks, while the outlay reached the sum of 49,383,404 marks.


—In 1878 the general debt amounted to 50,881,661 marks, and the railway debt to 277,253,122. A loan of 12,000,000 marks was added to this debt in 1878.


—The army of Baden has been united to the Prussian army in consequence of a military convention concluded between the grand duchy and Prussia. Nevertheless, troops recruited in Baden continue to form separate regiments, and are stationed in the grand duchy. They form, together with two Prussian regiments of infantry and one of cavalry, the fourteenth army corps, the commander of which resides in Carlsruhe.


—It is needless to add that all the military institutions are governed by the laws of the empire. According to these laws the grand duchy furnishes, in time of peace, one man per hundred, or 14,350 men; in time of war, 48,000 men, to the army of the empire.


—The management of the post and telegraph has passed also into the hands of the empire. There are in Baden two chief postal bureaus, at Carlsruhe and Constance, and one telegraphic bureau at Carlsruhe.


—Entry duties are collected on account of the imperial treasury; the customs, however, are collected by Baden functionaries for a consideration paid by the empire.


Notes for this chapter

Of this sum, land taxes form 3,240,000 florins; indirect taxes, 1,060,000 florins; tax on capital, on incomes, and on salaries of employés, 650,000 florins.
The tax on wine is 820,000 florins; on beer, 860,000 florins; alcohol, 94,000 florins; on meat, 300,000 florins; registration, 915,000 florins.

Remark. The tax on beer and spirits belongs, according to the constitution, to the empire. But the grand duchy of Baden, like the other states of the south, has reserved the right of taxing these articles and of paying therefore into the treasury of the empire a sum proportioned to the population.

Footnotes for BANKING

End of Notes

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