Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States

Edited by: Lalor, John J.
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New York: Maynard, Merrill, and Co.
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Includes articles by Frédéric Bastiat, Gustave de Molinari, Henry George, J. B. Say, Francis A. Walker, and more.
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ANHALT. The duchies, formerly principalities of Auhalt, were 4 in number during several centuries. In 1793 the extinction of the line of Zerbst took place, in 1847 that of Kæthen, and in 1863 that of Bernburg; so that now the line of Dessau has reunited all the country of Anhalt. The duchy of Anhalt forms a part of the German empire. (See GERMAN EMPIRE). It has an area of 869 English square miles with a population of above 213,565 according to the census of Dec. 1, 1875, mostly protestants. The duchies of Anhalt had even in the time of the Holy Roman empire a common diet, and their princes had formed a family compact stipulating for reciprocal rights of succession, and according precedence to the eldest among them. In 1848, these bonds became relaxed, each duchy constituted itself apart from the others, and provided itself with legislative chambers, on a democratic basis. But since 1850 certain democratic provisions were repealed and, on Nov. 4, 1851, an order of the duke of Anhalt Dessau, annulled the constitutional act of 1848. The old state of things changed somewhat by the orders of July 18, and Aug. 31, 1859, has been reestablished, and these orders combined with the family pact of 1635, make up the constitution of the duchy.


—The duke who enjoys the title of highness (hoheit) possesses all political power, but he enacts laws only with the concurrence of the estates when he consults also in other important affairs.


—The assembled diet is composed of 36 members. Of these 12 represent the nobility and great land-holders, 12 the towns and 12 the rural population. The representatives of the nobility are elected for life by their peers. The 12 deputies from the towns are the mayors of the 4 chief towns, and 8 common councilmen, elected for 6 years from among all the municipal bodies. The country members are chosen also for 6 years by the village mayors (schulze), either from their own body or among the rural proprietors.


—To be eligible a person must be at least 30 years old, profess the Christian religion, have civil and political rights, and have lived in the country at least 3 years. The diet assembles at least once in 3 years. Its sessions are not public. During the intervals between the sessions, business is done by a permanent committee of 9 persons elected by the diet. This committee is assisted by 2 jurists.


—Municipal administration (law of March 1, 1852,) accords to the communes the right of self-government under the supervision of the state. The communes are represented by a municipal body, composed in the towns of a burgomaster, and in the villages of a mayor (schulze), assisted by a common council and, in important affairs, by an assembly of communal delegates. The burgomaster and the common councilmen of towns are elected for 12 years. The delegates of communes, the mayors and the common councilmen of villages for 6 years. The local police is generally under the burgomaster or the schulze, but in the neighborhood of the great estate of a nobleman, or a public domain, the proprietor of that estate or the farmer of the domain, may be charged with it.


—The internal finances of the duchies of Anhalt, both in income and outgo are about 2,213,000 thalers.


—The debt of the duchy in 1879 amounted to 7,445,417 marks.


—The army of Anhalt is assimilated to that of Prussia. The contingent is one man out of a hundred, not including the landwehr.


—Agriculture, the raising of cattle, the forests and mines (iron, silver, lead, coal) are the chief sources of wealth.


—A number of hands are employed in woolen and linen industries. Commerce is relatively important, the transportation of merchandise is facilitated by the navigation of the Elbe and the Saale and by about 85 kilometres of railroad. The bank of Dessau has a capital of 4,000,000 thalers. The central bank of Germany 50,000,000, the institution of credit for industry and commerce, at Dessau, a capital of 8,000,000. These establishments are a proof of great commercial activity.


64 of 1105

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