Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States
MONROE, James, president of the United States 1817-25, was born in Westmoreland country, Va., April 28, 1758, and died at New York city, July 4, 1831. He was graduated at William and Mary in 1776, served in the continental army, studied law with Jefferson, and was a delegate from Virginia to the continental congress 1788-6. He was a democratic United States senator 1790-94, minister to France 1794-6, and governor of Virginia 1799-1802. He was again minister to France in 1803, to Great Britain in 1803, and to Spain in 1805. In 1811 he again became governor, and thence became secretary of state during the rest of Madison's two terms. He became president in 1817, and was re-elected in 1820, coming short but one of a unanimous electoral vote. In 1831 he removed to New York city. (See
—In his earlier political life Monroe was decidedly more ultra than the more conservative Madison, and his "View of the Conduct of the Executive" shows him to have been a democrat rather than a republican. In 1808-9 he was Madison's unsuccessful rival for the presidency, but afterward entered his cabinet and succeeded to his office in due course. His presidency was marked by a disappearance of old political issues. (See
—Monroe's correspondence is still in the department of state at Washington, inedited; but it has been used by Schouler, as cited below. See Monroe's View of the Conduct of the Executive, The People the Sovereigns, and his messages in the Statesman's Manual; Adams' Life of Monroe; Waldo's Tour of President Monroe in 1817; 2 Schouler's United States; and authorities under articles above referred to.
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