NETHERLANDS, The. The Netherlands is bounded on the east by Germany, on the south by Belgium, and on the west and the north by the North sea. Its area is 8,123,378 acres, or 9,435,635 acres, if the more or less submerged territory of the Zuyder Zee and of Dollard be included. The tides have in all times exercised a great influence upon the configuration of the country. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries the Zuyder Zee, the old lake of Flevo and Dollard, and in the fifteenth century, the Bies-Bosch, came into existence. The loss of land sustained by the Netherlands during the last seven centuries is estimated at 1,574,027 acres, although there has been conquered from the sea a surface of 877,205 acres, and 113,270 acres of this since 1815. The provinces of Zealand and Holland have increased their areas 649,873 acres by means of dikes, of which 444,780 acres of very fertile clayey lands produce cereals and madder.
—The population of the Netherlands according to each of the six decennial censuses, the fist of which was taken Nov. 16, 1829, and the last Dec. 31, 1879, was 2,613,491, 2,860,450, 3,056,879. 3,293,577, 3,579,529 and 4,012,693, being an increase of 1,399,202, or over 53 per cent., in half a century.
—The constitution of Oct. 25, 1848, gives the following personal guarantees: all persons within the territory of the kingdom, by they natives or foreigners, have an equal right to the protection of person and property. The law of Aug. 18, 1849, regulates the conditions of the admission and expulsion of foreigners, and of the extradition of criminals. The children born of Netherland parents, and persons born in the Netherlands, even those of alien parents, if they have their domicile in the kingdom, are Netherland citizens. (Civil Code of 1836.) A person may become a Netherlander by naturalization by virtue of the law of July 28, 1850. Natives only can be appointed to public office; they alone are electors and are eligible to the representative chambers and to the provincial and communal councils. Other fundamental principles of the constitution are the following: freedom of the press, with responsibility for criminal abuse of the same; inviolability of the secrecy of letters, which can not be opened except by judicial order and in cases provided by law; every citizen has the right of petition; petitions bearing a joint signature are not received, unless they come from a legally recognized corporation, and unless they have to do with matters within the province of such corporation; liberty of assembly and association, regulated and restricted by the law of April 22, 1855, "in the interest of public order." The acceptance of foreign naturalization, of military or civil offices, of titles of nobility, in a foreign country, without the permission of the king, and a residence of five consecutive years in a foreign land, without intention of returning, causes a forfeiture of political rights and the name of Netherlander.
—The king exercises the legislative power jointly with two chambers of the states-general. The executive power is lodged solely in the king. The members of the first chamber, numbering thirty-nine, are elected by provincial councils from among the persons who pay the largest amount of direct taxes; they are taken from a list of names for each province, in which at most one inhabitant out of 3,000 can have a place. The members of the second chamber, one out of every 45,000 inhabitants, the actual number of whom is eighty-six, are elected in the forty-one electoral districts (law of May 6, 1869) by all domiciled Netherlanders who have attained their majority (twenty-three years), and who exercise all their civil and political rights, and pay, according to the locality, from twenty to sixty florins direct taxes (law of July 4, 1850). The number of electors in 1872 was 105,452, or one out of thirty-four inhabitants. Any Netherlander, who has attained the age of thirty years, and who is in the enjoyment of all his civil and political rights, may be elected a member of the second chamber. The term of office is nine years for members of the first and four years for those of the second chamber. One-third of the first go out of office every three years, and one-half of the second every two years. The sessions of the chambers are public. The king can dissolve the chambers jointly or separately. The second chamber has the right of appointing commissions of inquiry and of proposing amendments to bills. It can, besides, introduce bills, which, however, before being submitted to the king for his sanction, must be approved by the first chamber. The members of the chambers can not be called to account for the opinions expressed by them in the exercise of their functions. The fundamental law and the other laws have, unless it be decided to the contrary, the force of law only in the European limits of the kingdom. The king is inviolable and irresponsible. Ministerial responsibility is fixed by the law of April 22, 1855. The budget is presented annually. No person can be tried outside of jurisdiction in which he lives without his consent; no person can be arrested, except by virtue of a judicial warrant; no person can be deprived of his property, except by a decision of the tribunals in cases of public utility, compensation being made him therefor. The liberty and equality of religions is guaranteed; the liberty of correspondence with the heads of the church is limited by responsibility before the law for the publication of bulls and episcopal pastorals. The law of Sept. 10, 1853, upon the surveillance of the different religious creeds, repealed the law of the 18 Germinal, year 10 (April 8, 1802).
—The eldest son of the king or his male descendants succeed to the throne by right of primogeniture. In default of descendants the right of succession passes to the brother of the king and his descendants. In default of male descendants of the house of Orange-Nassau, the succession passes to the daughter of the last king, and if there is no daughter, it passes through the oldest female member of the oldest male descending line of the king to the house to which she belongs. The male line is always preferred to the female line. With the exception of that of Luxemburg, the king can wear no foreign crown. The annual revenue of the king consists partly of domanial property (law of August, 1849). and partly of a sum fixed on his accession to the throne, and which is now 1,000,000 florins. For the support of the palaces, a sum of 50,000 florins is voted annually. The king and the prince heir are exempt from all personal taxes. The latter receives, upon reaching his majority, which is fixed at eighteen years of age, an annual sum of 100,000 florins, which sum is doubled at the time of his marriage. He bears the title of "Prince of Orange." The queen dowager receives an annual donation of 150,000 florins.
—The guardians of the king, in case of his minority, are certain members of the royal family and a few distinguished Netherlanders. In case of the incapacity of the king, the heir apparent, if he is of age, becomes regent by law. The regency is regulated by the law of July 28, 1850. The installation of the king or of the regent takes place at Amsterdam, the two chambers being assembled, by the taking of an oath to maintain the constitution, the independence of the country, the liberty and rights of the citizens, and to enforce obedience to the laws of the land.
—The king has the superior direction of foreign affairs, the right to declare war, subject to an early notification of the two chambers of his intention. He concludes treaties of peace and of commerce with foreign nations. The sanction of the two chambers is necessary, when there is a question of the cession of the exchange of territory, even in the transatlantic colonies of the Netherlands, or of stipulations which concern rights established by law. The king is commander-in chief of the army and of the navy; he has the superior direction of the colonies and possessions in other parts of the world. The king presents annually to the states general a detailed report of the administration and condition of the colonies, and the law regulates the administration of their finances. The king has the general administration of the finances in the mother country. He settles the salaries of public functionaries, with the exception of those of judges, which are fixed by the law relating to the judicial organization, promulgated Oct. 10, 1838. The laws of May 9, 1846, and May 3, 1851, regulate the pensions of officials. The king exercises the right of pardon. Amnesty can not be accorded except by law. The king can not grant exemptions except in the cases provided by law. He decides the administrative differences between two or more provinces. He presents bills and other propositions to the chambers, and sanctions or rejects those of the chambers. He presides over the council of state, and appoints and discharges the fifteen members of it. The law of Dec. 21, 1861, regulates the competency and composition of this council. The council of state is heard on all bills and all rules of general administration in the mother country and in the colonies. The prince heir apparent, when he reaches his majority, has a legal seat in the council, in which he has a consultative voice. All royal decisions and orders must be countersigned by a minister.
—The titles of nobility are count, baron, chevalier and gentleman (jonkheer). Since 1814 a council, composed of four members and a secretary, has the administration of every thing concerning the nobility. Previous to 1848 the nobility was one of the three estates represented in the second chamber; since the royal sanction of the new constitution, it has lost its political character.
—The council of ministers is composed of the heads of the seven ministries. Bills and the general rules of administration are submitted to the deliberation of the council of ministers before and after their presentation to the council of state, as are also treaties with foreign powers, the most important instructions to be given to ministers plenipotentiary, and propositions made to the king for the appointment or dismissal of high officials. (Royal decree of March 31, 1842.) The seven ministries are as follows: 1.Foreign affairs; 2.Justice; 3.Interior; 4.Navy; 5.Finance; 6.War; 7.Colonies. The king can accord to high officials the title of minister of state, or of councilors in extraordinary service; there are, besides, honorary councilors. The latter can be associated by the king in the work of the council of state. The ministers have each a salary of 12,000 florins.
—Administration. Each of the eleven provinces of the kingdom is governed by a commissioner of the king, with a salary of from 6,000 to 8,000 florins. The members of the provincial assemblies are elected for six years by electors, whose number in 1871 was 104,194. The provincial assemblies hold their sessions regularly at the beginning of July and of November, and choose from their own body from four to six members to form a committee for the conduct of affairs and the execution of the laws and regulations. The secretary and the employés of this committee are appointed by itself. (Provincial law of July 6, 1850.)
—The communal law dates from July 29, 1851. It destroyed the distinction between city and village. The number of districts in 1873 was 1,134, of which there were 834 with less than 3,000 and thirty-eight with more than 10,000 inhabitants. The number of communal councilors depends upon the population, according to the returns of each decennial census. There were in 1873 seven of them in communes with less than 3,000 and thirty-nine in communes with less than 10,000 inhabitants. The councilors are elected for six years. The electors are all persons who pay direct taxes; the amount of taxes qualifying them to vote is fixed at one-half the amount necessary to render one eligible to take part in the election of members of the second chamber. The burgomaster is appointed by the king for six years; he is assisted by one alderman in districts of less, and by three or four aldermen in districts of more, than 20,000 inhabitants. Each district has also its secretary and its receiver, elected by the council from a list of two persons, presented by the burgomaster and alderman. In the smaller districts those two offices are held by one person; in others the burgomaster discharges the duties of secretary as well as his own.
—Finance. The improvement in the financial state of affairs, which had suffered greatly by the separation from Belgium and the extraordinary armaments of 1830 to 1839, dates from 1850. The nominal principal of the public debt at that time was estimated at a total of 1,239,592,646 florins, and the annual interest amounted to 36,194,879 florins. The principal of the public debt increased during eleven years, from Jan.1, 1829, to Dec. 31. 1839. 376,622,406 florins, and the interest 19,342,187 florins. From 1850 to the month of July, 1872, a principal of 290,159,613 florins was liquidated, and the interest reduced 8,958,037 florins. The following table of the national debt in 1850 and 1873 shows the nature of each debt, and allows a calculation to be made of the power of liquidation:
At the commencement of the year 1879 the national funded debt was as follows:
In the session of 1873 the states general passed an act to increase the annual sum set aside as a sinking fund for the redemption of the debt, namely, 1,900,000 florins by 7,000,000 florins, and thus redeem a total amount of 8,900,000 florins. An other act of the session of 1875 increased the sum to 10,000,000 florins, to be set aside for the redemption of the national debt.
—Below we give a table of the budget estimates of 1850, 1862 and 1873. Excise duties are paid upon the following articles: sugar, wine, native and foreign alcoholic liquors, salt, soap, beer, vinegar, beef and veal, the term indirect taxes applies to stamps, registration, and the taxes paid on mortgages and inheritances, the whole charged with thirty eight centimes additional.
—The following is a list of the expenditures of 1862 and 1873:
The expenditures in 1871 amounted to 94,573,752 florins. The revenue and expenditure in the years 1873-7 were as follows:
The budget estimates of revenue and expenditure for the two years 1878 and 1879 were as follows:
In the budget estimates for the year 1880 the revenue was calculated at 108,000,000 florins and the expenditure at 114,000,000 florins. In the budget estimates for the year 1881 the revenue was calculated at 105,000,000 florins and the expenditure at 126,333,000 florins.
—Justice. The superior court sits at the Hague. It has original Jurisdiction in matters concerning the state and the royal family, and prizes, and in the case of the impeachment of ministers, as well as of misdemeanors committed in the exercise of their duties by high officials; and an appeal lies to it from the provincial courts and the courts in the colonies. (Articles 159 and 160 of the Constitution.) There are eleven provincial courts, thirty-four district courts, and 150 cantonal judges (justices of the peace). The fundamental principles of the administration of justice are: publicity of the arguments; a public prosecutor; no jury, but conviction by proofs and witnesses; defense by advocates and attorneys. Judges are irremovable except in case of misconduct. The judges of the cantons are appointed for five years by the king, but their appointment may be renewed. Notaries are appointed for life by the king, one for every 4,000 inhabitants (law of July 9, 1842). Military justice is exercised by seven military hearings. Besides this, the navy has three hearings. The high court of military justice is at Utrecht. The merchant marine has its council of discipline at Amsterdam, composed of four members and of a secretary (law of May 7, 1856). The judicial police is exercised by the minister of Justice as chief director, and by the attorneys general of the eleven provincial courts as directors. The subordinates are the commissioners-in-chief, the commissioners of police, the officers in charge of the ports, the burgomasters, and the 618 sergeants of police.
—The French penal code of 1810, modified by the two laws of June, 1854, is in force in the Netherlands. During the year 1869, 47,856 persons were prosecuted, of which number 644 were accused of crimes. 12,758 charged with misdemeanors, and 34,459 with offenses against police regulations. Crimes and misdemeanors against the state numbered respectively 112 and 4,394, against persons, fifty-nine and 4,809; against property, 478 and 3,550. Of those accused of crimes 529 were males and 115 females; of those charged with misdemeanors, 10,894 were males and 2,859 females; and of those charged with offenses against the regulations of the police, 29,469 were males and 4,990 females; in all 40,392 males and 7,464 females. The average of the acquittals was 7 per cent of those accused of crimes, and 14 per cent, of those charged with misdemeanors. Since Dec.11, 1813, confinement in prison extending to twenty years has been substituted for forced labor.
—Religion and Education. The Reformed church and the Evangelical Lutheran church in 1873 had each a synod; the Reformed had 1,357 parishes and 1,627 pastors; the Lutheran, fifty parishes and sixty-two pastors; the old Lutherans, presided over by a commission, eight parishes with eleven pastors; the Mennonites, 126 parishes with 126 pastors; the Remonstrants, represented by a commission, had twenty-one parishes with twenty-one ministers; the Moravian brothers, two parishes with two ministers; the German Evangelical church had one parish with one minister at the Hague. The Reformed Christians (who separated from the Reformed church) had 330 parishes with 230 pastors. The Jansenists have an archbishop at Utrecht, and two bishops, at Haarlem and Deventer, and are divided into twenty-five parishes and twenty-five curacies. The Roman Catholics, since 1853, have five dioceses, one archbishopric at Utrecht, and bishoprics at Haarlem, Hertogenbosch, Breda and Roermond, divided into 936 parishes, thirty-four rectorates and 896 curacies. The Catholic clergy numbered, in 1873, about 1,989 ecclesiastics, of whom 1,866 have charge of souls. The greater part of the convents are in North Brabant and Limburg. The Netherland or German Jews had, in 1873, a commission, 166 parishes and seventy-two auxiliary temples; the number of rabbis was fifteen, of whom one is at Curacoa and one at Surinam. The Portuguese Jews had two parishes, at Amsterdam and the Hague, under the administration of a central commission. the population was divided in the following manner among the different religions, Dec. 31, 1859 and 1869:
—Elementary education(law of Aug 13. 1857) is very general in the Netherlands. According to the constitution education is free. The instructors in the elementary and intermediate schools are submitted to an examination, and are required to produce a certificate of good moral character. The supervision of the primary schools is confided to eleven inspectors, and that of the intermediate to three inspectors. The kingdom is divided into ninety four school districts, each with a supervisor. In each district of more than 3,000 souls, there is a school commission. Dec.31, 1870, there were 3,727 primary schools, part public (2,608), and part private (1,119); there were 8,870 male teachers, and 2,042 female teachers. These schools contained, in January, 1870, 466,779 pupils of which number 249,926 were boys and 216,853 girls. There were 832 infant schools attended by 29,662 boys and 34,659 girls; 212 private schools (adult class) and schools open on Sunday only. The evening schools or classes were attended by 57,936 men and 23,675 women. The expenses for elementary instruction amounted to 4,984,534 florins. The normal schools for instructors are situated at Hertogenbosch, Groningen and Haarlem. The Latin schools (colleges) and the gymnasiums (lyceums) number (1870) fifty-five, with 212 professors and 1,128 pupils. Intermediate educational institutions(law of May 3, 1863) include the schools for artisans, and in general all practical schools for arts and trades, the polytechnic school, and the schools of agriculture, navigation, commerce and design. At the end of 1870 there were forty-four so-called higher middle class schools, with 519 professors, attended by 3,559 pupils; the polytechnic school at Delft, with nineteen professors was attended, in 1870-71, by 164 students; the school of agriculture at Warffum had seven pupils, and the school of horticulture at Watergraafsmeer had twenty-nine; there were nine schools of navigation, with twenty professors and 208 pupils; besides many intermediate schools for young girls, the majority of which are private institutions. Higher instruction is given in the three state universities of Leyden, Utrecht and Groningen, and in the public athenæums of Amsterdam and Deventer, attended, in 1870, by 1,339 students. The theological students of the Reformed church follow the course of studies in the universities and athenæums, those of other religious creeds study in the seminaries: the Remonstrants, Mennonites, Lutherans and Jews at Amsterdam, the Reformed Christians at Kampen, the Jansenists at Amersfoort, the Roman Catholics at Driebergen, Warmond, Culemborg, Haaren, Hoeven and Roermond, with branches at Voorhout, Saint-Michielsgestel, Oudenbosch and Kerkrad. There are two preparatory institutions for future employés in the East Indies, one a state institution at Leyden, and one, district, at Delft, with nine professors and fourteen students. There are, besides, at Amsterdam a preparatory school for army and navy physicians, a polytechnic school, and a school for the instruction of midwives; there are miliary schools at Breda and Kampen, a naval school at Medemblik, a veterinary school at Utrecht, three institutions of deaf mutes, three for the blind, and one for idiot children, the last at the Hague. Besides there are many schools of swimming, gymnastics, vocal and instrumental music, drawing, etc.
—Public Charity is regulated by the law of June 28, 1854, which fixes the place of his relief at the place of birth of the person relieved. The institutions of charity are: 1st, those of the state, of the provinces and of the districts; 2d, of religious corporations; 3d, special; 4th, general. The first do not give aid except in case of the insufficiency of the others. These institutions, in 1869, numbered 5,194, of which 3,950 afforded home aid,716 were almshouses for old people, children, etc., sixty-four hospitals, eleven asylums for the insane, and ninety workhouses. In 1869 aid was given to 148,951 housekeepers and 81,089 single persons; the cost of charity was 10,812,303 florins. The population of the state colonies for paupers at Ommerschans and Veenhuizen (in Overissel and Drenthe) on Dec.1, 1869, was 5,508; the population of the colonies of the benevolent society, in Drenthe, Overissel and Frisia, was 2,276. The insane asylums, numbering twelve, are regulated by the law of May 29,1841. The number of the insane in these establishments, Dec. 31, 1848, was 557 men and 609 women; Dec. 31, 1858, it was 961 men and 1,065 women, and Dec.31, 1868, 1,557 ,men and 1,703 women.
—Army and Navy. The composition of the army in 1872 was as follows: 1. Infantry—1.046 officers and 42,034 soldiers, one regiment of grenadiers and chasseurs, eight regiments of the line, one battalion of instruction of four companies, one dépôt of discipline of two companies, hospital corps forming two companies; 2. Cavalry—four regiments, 177 officers, 3,386 soldiers, and 2,679 horses; 3. Artillery—five regiments and a corps of pontonniers, in all, 387 officers, 10,014 soldiers, and 1,800 horses; 4. A corps of engineers, whose staff consisted of seventy officers and thirty-six inspectors of fortifications. This corps embraced besides a battalion of sappers and miners of five companies, with twenty-two officers and 922 men. The entire army was composed of 1,945 officers and 59,482 soldiers, and besides, in the provinces of North Brabant, Zealand and Limburg, of a gendamerie corps of ten officers, 362 men and 202 horses. The effective force of the army, July 1, 1872, was 1,872 officers and 57,992 soldiers, of which 29,189 were on leave. There were 4,707 horses. The army in the eastern and western colonies comprised, Jan.1, 1871, 1,318 officers and 28,351 soldiers. Military service is obligatory, but substitution is allowed.
—The law concerning the national militia dates from Aug. 19, 1861. Maximum of the annual contingent, 11,000 men (contingent for the year 1873, of which 600 were for naval service). Maximum of the number of militiamen is 55,000 men. Registration for recruitment takes place at the age of nineteen years and the lot is drawn a year later. The contingent is regulated by the number of names inscribed the preceding year. Duration of service, five years. Service in the national guard is obligatory from twenty-five to thirty-five years (law of April 11, 1827). The proportion is two men out of every 100 inhabitants. Of these ten years, five years of active service are required; in the last five years the men form part of the reserve.
—The navy is composed of : 1, ships for home service and a manœuvring corps, not embarked,(July 1, 1873, 53 officers and 1,741 men); 2, transport vessels for the colonies; 3 and 4, squadrons in the East and West Indies; 5, ships in other waters, including vessels in process of construction or of repair. The navy included, Aug.1, 1872, 117 ships, of which seventy-four were steamers, with a power of 14,377 horses. These ships were able to carry 1,060 cannon. In active service there were forty-nine ships, thirty-eight of which were steamers, with a power of 6,269 horses, and armed with 378 canon. The crews consisted of 5,598 men. The corps of officers of the fleet comprise one admiral, one lieutenant admiral, two vice-admirals, four rear admirals, twenty captains, 100 lieutenant captains, 120 first lieutenants, 220 second lieutenants, and seventy-six cadets of the first class; the administration comprises three inspectors, eighty-four administrative officers in three classes, and thirty-six midshipmen.
—Resources. Although rural economy is very far advanced, the products of the soil are not sufficient for the support of the inhabitants. The most productive provinces are Zealand and Groningen. Wheat is cultivated chiefly in Zealand, South Holland and Limburg, rye in Groningen, Zealand, North Brabant, Guelderland and Limburg; potatoes in Zealand and the dunes; oats in Groningen, Frisia, Guelderland and Zealand; colza in Groningen and South Holland; tobacco in Guelderland and the province of Utrecht; flax and hemp in South Holland, and chiccory in Frisia. The area of arable land is estimated at 2,128,766 acres. Value of the products varied, during the ten years 1861-70, from 156 to 198 millions of florins; the average is 173 millions. The area of the meadows and of the land devoted to the growth of fodder for animals is about 3,212,300 acres, or one-third of the surface of the country. The finest pastures are found in the two Hollands and in Frisia. Gardening and the cultivation of vegetables are brought to great perfection in the two Hollands and in the province of Utrecht. A large commerce is carried on with England in vegetables, fruit, butter and live stock. Toward the end of 1870 the live stock comprised 252,054 horses, 1,410,822 horned cattle, 900,187 sheep, 136,980 goats, 329,058 hogs, and 3,193 asses and mules.
—The country is more commercial than industrial. The principal industrial centres are the great cities of the two Hollands, such as Amsterdam, Haarlem, Rotterdam, Leyden, Dordrecht, the Hague, the city of Utrecht, a part of North Brabant, especially Tilburg and its suburbs, the country of Drenthe, in Overissel, some parts of Guelderland, and the cities of Maestrecht and Roermond in Limburg. Toward the end of 1870, 709 manufactories used steam for a motive power, and made use of 794 engines and 1,043 boilers, with a force of 13,346 horses. Commerce and transportation were effected at that time by means of 100 steamships, with 168 engines and 118 boilers, with a force of 12,118 horses. The patent law dates from May 21, 1819. The law of July 15, 1869, aboilshed patents for invention and introduction. The principal industries are connected with the building of ships, and with commerce with the colonies. There are 600 to 700 dock yards, of which 150 are devoted to the building of sen-going ships. The principal dock yards are found in the two Hollands, ar Groningen and Frisia. Saw mills (113 in number) are found chiefly in the two Hollands in the region of Zaan, and about Dordrecht; manufactories of ropes in South Holland, and manufactories of sails at Crommenie. in North Holland, Then there are 500 to 600 brick yards, tile works and manufactories of pottery, chiefly in Guelderland, Overissel and South Holland; 400 millions of bricks are made annually: there are 400 to 500 gin distilleries, of which 221 are at Schiedam; the manufactories of tobacco and cigars number more than 300, principally at Amsterdam, Utrecht and Eindhoven; there are also manufactories of madder in Brabant and South Holland, and especially in Zealand; 300 to 400 oil mills, chiefly in North Holland; paper manufactories, chiefly in the region of Zaan, Guelderland, and at Maestricht and Rotterdam; sugar refineries at Amsterdam and Rotterdam, (producing 175 million to 220 million pounds, principally exported to Italy and Russia); rice mills at Amsterdam and Rotterdam; mils for polishing diamonds at Amsterdam, which have a European reputation; goldsmiths' establishments at Amsterdam, in South Holland and Frisia; linen and cotton manufactories, chiefly in Drenthe, Overissel, Guelderland and South Brabant; manufactories of woolen cloths at Leyden and Tilburg, and many other places.
—The Netherland fisheries, above all the salting of herring, have always been renowned. The principal fisheries are those of the herring, large and small, which yielded, in 1871, two millions of florins, (322 ships); fishing with nets, (208 ships), half a million: cod, whiting fishing, etc., (87 ships), The exportation in 1871 was: cod, 4,030 tons; stockfish, 2,585,000 pounds. The products of the fishery of the Zuyder Zee. herrings, anchovies, shrimps, eels, etc., (650 ships), are exported principally to Belgium and Germany.
—The following is a summary of the international commerce, in millions of florins. (The total amount of the special commerce can be found by subtracting the transit of the general commerce.)
The following is the movement of commerce, in millions of florins, between the Netherlands and the six following groups of countries. In the second group are included Germany, Sweden, Norway, and a part of Russia; in the third, Belgium, France, Spain and Portugal; in the fourth, Italy, Austria, part of Russia, Turkey, Greece, the Danubian Principalities. Egypt, and the Barbary States.
The following table shows the chief articles of import and export, for years named:
Two-thirds of the foreign commerce of the Netherlands is carried on by sea. The merchant marine in 1846 numbered 1.936 ships, with 521,098 tonnage. The following is a table of movement of navigation for the years 1831-71:
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M. M. DE. BAUMHAUER.