Arthur Young's Travels in France During the Years 1787, 1788, 1789
1.  See, for full information, the contribution of M. H. Baudrillart of the Institut to the "Revue des Deux Mondes," 1st Oct., 1885, "Le Métayage en France et son avenir."
2.  See H. Martin's "Histoire de France," vol. iii., p. 268, et seq., "Les Serfs transformés en roturiers," and vol. vii., p. 190, "Etats Généraux."
3.  M. H. Baudrillart, "Contemporary Review," May, 1886.
4.  See E. Réclus, "Géographie de la France."
5.  See M. H. Baudrillart, "Revue des Deux Mondes," 15th Oct. and 15th Nov., 1884.
6.  During the year spent by the present writer in Western France (1875-6), the following announcement often met the eye at Nantes: "Ecrivain publique, 10 centimes par lettre." Women servants who could read, much less write, were then an exception. The free night-schools opened by the municipal council rendered infinite service before the passing of the great educational act of 1886. At the School Board election, Hastings, 1889, many voters could neither read nor write!
7.  Nevertheless, in the space of five or six years the Revolution had quadrupled the resources of civilization and enormously developed material progress throughout the country.—Mignet, vol. ii., p. 179.
8.  "Congéable. Tenure à domaine congéable, tenure avec faculté pour le bailleur de congédier à volonté le preneur, en lui remboursant son amélioration."—Littré.
9.  See H. Martin, vol. viii., p. 273.
10.  See "Mémoires de la Société Industrielle de Maine et Loire," also E. Réclus, "Géographie de la France."
11.  I have heard of one rich farmer's daughter of this district receiving a million of francs, £40,000, as her marriage portion.
12.  This lunetterie resolves itself into a scientific study of noses!—a long-nosed nation requiring one kind of spectacles, a short-nosed people an other, and so on. A pair of spectacles can be made here for three half-pence.
13.  Twenty thousand copies were printed by order of the Convention, and distributed gratuitously in every commune. "Ce que," dit le Ministre de l'Intérieur, Garat, "contribua rapidement et sensiblement à métamorphoser les cailloux des collines en vignes fécondes, et les plaines abandonnées à la tourte en gros pâturages."—Garat, Mémoires, sur la Révolution, Paris, 1794.
14.  "Burke," by John Morley ("English Men of Letters"), p. 162.
15.  In one of his private note-books Arthur Young writes that the manuscript of the French Travels went through a most careful process of excision before being submitted to the printer. He adds, "I am strongly of opinion that if nine-tenths of other writers would do the same thing, their performance would be so much the better, for one reads very few quartos that would not be improved by reducing to octavo."
Another interesting fact recorded is the item of expenditure. The first journey, lasting just upon six months, cost £118 15s. 2d. The second journey, of eighty-eight days, cost just £61, or at the rate of fourteen shillings a day, about the sum an economical traveller would spend in France at the present time, obtaining naturally much more comfort for his money.
Readers of Arthur Young will do well to consult the reports of the Administration of Agriculture in France, 1785-7, recently published with notes by MM. Pigeonneau and De Foville, whilst the work of the latter on the subdivision of land, "Le Morcellement," Paris, 1885, is a mine of information conveyed in a most interesting manner.
16.  The three adjectives seem to be an interpolation of a later date.
17.  H. Pell, Esq, M.P. See "Arthur Young, agriculturist, author, and statesman," 'The Farmers' Club," W. Johnson, Salisbury Square.
18.  There seems some confusion here, surely six must be meant.
Chapter 1, Author's Introduction
1.  See "Annals of Agriculture," vol. iii.
[All foot-notes are by the Editor unless it is stated otherwise.]
Journal, May 15, 1787.
2.  Pont de Brique (Pas de Calais).
3.  (Pas de Calais.)
4.  "Un malheureux corvoyeur, qui pays quarante sous de capitation, et qui n'a pour vivre que ce qu'il peut gagner dans la journée, sera tenu d'entretenir environ six toises (measure of six feet) de chomin, entretien évalué à neuf livres (the livre varied in value from twenty to twenty-five sous) chaque année. De plus on la transportait d'une route sur une autre, join de chez lui."—Petition of the Parliament of Rennes. H. Martin, Histoire de France, vol. xvi., p. 237. When Arthur Young wrote, the corvée had in certain regions been commuted into a fixed money payment, paid by the Commune.
5.  Turbary; Fr. Tourbière (peat-bed).
6.  Montreuil-sur-mer (Pas de Calais).
7.  (Pas de Calais.)
8.  (Pas de Calais.)
9.  The Van Robais, Dutch cloth manufacturers invited to France by Colbert.
10.  This treaty, so liberal in spirit, was signed at Versailles in Sept. 1786, and ratified the following year. The trade between the two countries had been up to that time comparatively small; imports and exports were doubled within twelve months after the treaty had come into force. Among the clauses was one providing entire religious liberty for subjects of both countries, and the right of sepulture "in convenient places to be appointed for that purpose." These friendly and profitable commercial relations were soon interrupted by war. Knight's Hist. Eng., vol. vi., p. 797.
11.  (Somme.)
12.  (Somme.)
13.  (Oise.)
14.  (Oise.)
15.  The château here spoken of was razed as a fortress in 1792, and replaced in 1880 by the elegant construction of the Duc d'Aumale, presented to the Institut in 1886.
16.  (Oise.)
17.  Home, Henry, Lord Kames, Scotch judge and author, died 1782.
18.  This prince headed the emigration, a movement that sealed the fate of Louis XVI. The vast Bourbon-Condé estate became the property of the Duke d'Aumale on the mysterious death of the last duke (son of the above-mentioned) in 1830. The old man was found at the château of St. Leu, hanging by his cravat from the sill of a window, and foul play was suspected. He was father of the Duke d'Enghien, foully murdered by the first Napoleon.
19.  Luzarches (connected with Paris by a railway branching from the Boulogne and Calais line) (Seine et Oise).
20.  It was the Duke de Liancourt who summoned courage to break to Louis XVI. the fall of the Bastille. "It is a revolt!" said the King. "No, sire," replied the Duke, "it is a revolution!" His leanings were to constitutional monarchy, and he made every effort to reconcile the court and the assembly. Finding the cause of the Revolution, from his point of view, hopeless, he quitted France, and after years of exile quietly ended his days at Liancourt among the country people by whom he was so deservedly beloved. Died 1827, in the Rue St. Honoré, No. 29.
21.  Madame Roland gives a painful portrait of this Polish protégé of the Duke. The National Assembly having suppressed his office as inspector of manufactures, he threw himself into sans-culottism, took part in the terrible events of September, 1792, and died soon after. His funeral oration was pronounced by Robespierre. See "Mémoires de Madame Roland." Paris, 1885. See also for Lazowski's services to French agriculture, "L'agriculture in 1785-1787," par MM. Pigeonneau and De Foville. Paris, 1882.
22.  Broussonet, Pierre Auguste, a distinguished naturalist, and no insignificant politician, whose life was a long series of adventures. Proscribed as a Girondin, he crossed to Africa. In 1805 he became member of the corps Législatif. Died 1807.
23.  Founded 1761. An account of the labours of M. Desmarets and his colleagues is given in the work named in note 2, preceding page.
24.  Like his kinsman the Due de Liancourt, one of the public-spirited noblemen who welcomed the Revolution. "La constitution sera faite ounous ne serons plus" were his words two years later. Of liberal mind and sterling worth the Duke de la Rochefoucauld deserved a better fate. Killed at Gisors, 1794.
25.  This brave admiral had commanded the French fleets in the East (1773,1783), coming to sharp encounters with our own off the coasts of Madras and Ceylon. His most brilliant exploit was the capture of Trincomalee, but these successes were not seconded by the weak government at home, and the Treaty of Versailles cut short his career. Died 1788.
26.  This château, famous as the scene of Napoleon's Coup d'état of the 18 Brumaire, from which also emanated the ordonnances of Charles X., was destroyed by the Prussian fire in 1870.
27.  (Seine et Oise.)
28.  Philippe Comte de Noailles, Duc de Mouchy, with his wife, guillotined during the Terror. He was son of Adrian Maurice, Maréchal de France and Duc de Noailles, and father of that public-spirited viscount who took the lead in renouncing feudal privileges on the assemblage of the States General.
29.  Étampes (Seine et Oise).
30.  Station on the Orleans railway (Loiret).
31.  Coin thus called in the reign of Louis XIII.; value in 1787 twenty-four francs.
32.  Plantations, irrigation, canalization and improved methods of agriculture are gradually transforming this region. La Sologne forms part of the two departments of Loiret and Loir and Cher.
33.  La Ferté-Saint-Aubin (Loiret).
34.  Métayage, Lat. Medietarius, is the system of farming on half profits, so successful in various parts of France. The owner of the land supplies the soil rent-free, the farmer gives the necessary labour, the fruits being equally shared. Complex as such an arrangement may appear at first sight, métayage must be counted as a factor of great importance in the agricultural prosperity of France.
35.  The Château de Lowendal (Loiret).
36.  Nouant-le-Fuzelier (Loir and Cher). This little town is an active centre of bee-farming.
37.  (Loir and Cher.)
38.  Généralité, ancient fiscal division.
39.  Vierzon (Cher).
40.  (Cher.)
41.  Vatan (Indre).
42.  Sancerre (Cher), famous for its wines.
43.  Sol. sou.
44.  Châteauroux (Indre). From time immemorial this town has been celebrated for its cloth manufactures.
45.  (Indre), within easy reach of the valley of La Creuse, immortalized by George Sand.
46.  The tract of uncultivated land serving as a frontier between two states or seignorial domains. Thus we find la Marche between le Berri, and le Limousin, les Marches in Savoy, &c. From the first-named was formed the department of la Corrèze.
47.  (Indre.)
48.  Bassines (Hte. Vienne).
49.  Lord Macartney was appointed envoy extraordinary to the Empress of Russia in 1764, and later governor of Tobago. On the capture of that island he was sent to France. In 1780 he became governor of Madras, and afterwards Governor-General of Bengal. St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Grenada, and Tobago (the Windward Islands) now belong to England.
50.  Pierrebussière (Hte. Vienne).
51.  (Dordogne.) This village was created a marquisate by Louis XV. for his mistress. Château and haras remain.
52.  The livre differed in value from twenty to twenty-five sous.
53.  Uzerche (Corrèze).
54.  (Corrèze.)
55.  St. Germain-les-Belles (Haute Vienne)
56.  (Ibid.)
57.  Formerly le pays de Cadurques, now the department of the Lot.
58.  The château still remains. The Duc de Noailles here mentioned was brother of the unfortunate Duc de Mouchy. He was created Marshall of France by Louis XV. without having rendered any services deserving the honour. Died 1793. (H. Martin.)
59.  Souillac (Lot).
60.  A light carriage, also called tim-whiskey.
61.  (Lot.)
62.  Pont de Rode (Lot).
63.  (Lot.)
64.  I since had a barrique of him; but whether he sent bad wine, which I am not willing to believe, or that it came through bad hands, I know not. It is, however, so bad, as to be item for folly.—Author's note.
65.  Ventaillac (Lot).
66.  (Tarn et Garonne).
67.  (Tarn et Garonne.)
68.  Montauban (ibid.)
69.  (Tarn et Garonne.)
70.  Pompignon (Tarn et Garonne).
71.  St. Jory (Hte. Garonne).
72.  Toulouse.
73.  The jeux floraux or poetic tourneys celebrated the visit of Charles Le Bel to Toulouse in 1323 or 1324. A golden violet was given to the author of the best poem, also the title of docteur du gai saber. But the days of Provencal poetry were over, and the king did not even attend the crowning of the successful candidate.
74.  Now desecrated, and used for the storage of hay.
75.  The canal de Brienne, joining the canals de Languedoc and du Midi.
76.  The anti-Protestant Loménie de Brienne, in power at the time this was written, dismissed the following year.
77.  The Hotel Dubarry, now No. 13, Place St. Raymond, is occupied by nuns of the Benedictine Order. What became of the portrait here mentioned is not known, no mention of it occurring in the list of objects confiscated in 1794.
78.  Madame du Barry, the favourite of Louis XV. She had fled from Paris on the outbreak of the Revolution, but ventured to the Bernardine Convent at Couilly (Seine and Marne), now destroyed, in order to get her diamonds there hidden. She was seized and guillotined during the Terror. Helen Maria Williams gives a fearful picture of her execution. See Memoir De Goncourts.
79.  St. Martory (Hte. Garonne).
80.  (Hte. Garonne.)
81.  St. Bertrand de Comminges (Hte. Garonne)
82.  Loures (Hte. Pyrenees).
83.  Cierp (Hte. Garonne).
84.  This word Neste, meaning a torrent stream, is frequently found in the Pyrenees.
85.  Bagnères de Luchon (Hte. Garonne).
86.  Cahors or Aire (Landes) is evidently meant.
87.  Larboust, or de l'Arboust, east of Bagnères-de-Luchon.
88.  Pope, Eloisa to Abelard, lines 169, 170.
89.  Viella (Catalonia).
90.  Jonquiera (Catalonia).
91.  Le Roussillon, now forming the department of Les Pyrenées-Orientales, was added to the French crown in 1659 by the treaty of the Pyrenees.
92.  (Pyrenées-Orientales.)
93.  Rivesaltes, station and seat of the wine trade (Pyrenées-Orientales)
94.  Sigean, on the lagoon of that name (Aude).
95.  La Robine.
96.  The canal de Languedoc or du Midi, called also Le canal des deux Mers, which unites the Mediterranean with the Atlantic, was created under Louis XIV. by Riquet.
97.  Béziers (Hérault).
98.  Rozier (François), an ecclesiastic and agricultural writer, born 1754, killed at the siege of Lyons 1793.
99.  Pézenas (Hérault).
100.  An order created by Louis XIV., and conferred only on officers, naval and military. Suppressed by the Convention, 1792, re-established under the Restoration, this order was finally abolished in July, 1830.
101.  Pignan (Hérault).
102.  (Hérault.)
103.  Montbazin (Hérault).
104.  Place du Peyrou.
105.  (Gard.) The celebrated fairs formerly held here have much decreased in importance.
106.  (Gard.)
107.  The château Sabatier is seen to the right on the railway from Nîmes to Le Vigan.
108.  St. Hippolyte du Fort (Gard).
109.  The Rouergue (Aveyron).
110.  Le Vigan (Gard).
111.  Millau (Aveyron).
112.  Ganges (Hérault).
113.  St. Laurence le Minier (Hérault).
114.  Mondardier (Hérault).
115.  Madières (Hérault).
116.  (Hérault.)
117.  Lodève (Hérault).
118.  Bédarieux (Hérault).
119.  Londrins, cloth, imitating that of London, hence the name, manufactured in Languedoc, Provence, and Dauphiné.
120.  Capestang, Caput Stagnum, see for a most interesting account of the Lagoons of Languedoc, M. Lenthéric's "Les Villes Mortes du Golfe du Lyon."
121.  Prouille (Hérault).
122.  Faujeaux (Hérault).
123.  (Ariège.)
124.  (Ariège.)
125.  Amous. Aulus is evidently here meant (Ariège).
126.  St. Girons (Ariège).
127.  (Hte, Garonne.)
128.  (Hte. Pyrenées.)
129.  No longer in existence.
130.  (Hte. Pyrenées.) "Celebrated perhaps beyond its deserts from the time of Arthur Young to the present."—Murray's Guide.
131.  Lourdes (Hte. Pyrenées), celebrated in these days for its so-called miraculous fountain and pilgrimages. The castle is now used as a barrack.
132.  (Basses-Pyrenées.)
133.  Monein (Basses-Pyrenées).
134.  "Dans nos campagnes, tout le monde est propriétaire."—Remonstrance of the Parliament of Pau,1788. See H. Martin's "Histoire de France," vol. xvi., p. 668.
135.  Navarrenx (Basses Pyrenées).
136.  St. Palais (Basses Pyrenées).
137.  Hasparren (Basses Pyrenées), an important Basque town, still celebrated for its fairs.
138.  Some notion of the transformation effected in this region since Arthur Young's time may be gathered from the following facts: 290,000 hectares have been rendered fertile by canals, which in 1877 reached a total of 2,200 kilomètres. 90,000 hectares, lying between the mouth of the Garonne and of the Adour, are now covered with pine forests, the creation of this century. A very small portion of the Landes remains in the condition our author found it just a hundred years ago. See E. Réclus, "Géographie de la France."
139.  The duchy of Bouillon was incorporated with French territory in 1793, but annexed to Luxemburg in 1815, and now forms part of Belgian Luxembourg. See Lalanue's "Dictionnaire historique de la France."
140.  Aire (Landes).
141.  St, Sever (Landes).
142.  Beek, Vic-Bigorre (Landes).
143.  Auch (Gers). This name is Basque.
144.  Fleurance (Gers), one of the numerous towns in this department having a foreign name. We find Barcelone, Cologne, Pis (Pisa), Valence, originally seigneurial fortresses.
145.  Lectöure (Gers), no longer an episcopate.
146.  Leyrac (Lot and Garonne).
147.  (Lot and Garonne).
148.  Aiguillon (Lot and Garonne).
149.  That cruel and lawless governor of Brittany whose conduct was the subject of a petition to Louis XV. from the Parliament of Rennes. He was disgraced by Louis XVI. His son rehabilitated family honour with the Vicomte de Noailles and others, surrendering feudal privileges on the outbreak of the Revolution. The château here spoken of was never completed, and the title is now extinct.
150.  Tonneins (Lot and Garonne).
151.  (Gironde.)
152.  (Gironde.)
153.  Tull, Jethro, agricultural writer who made the tour of Europe, died 1740.
154.  (Gironde.)
155.  I leave the spelling of Bordeaux as Arthur Young wrote. Bourdeaux is a little town in the Drôme.
156.  Larrive, Henri, 1733-1802, celebrated actor and vocalist.
157.  De Belloy, a dramatic writer famous in his day, now forgotten.
158.  (Gironde.)
159.  Barbézieux (Charente).
160.  The so-called "roi de la Maraude," who commanded the French forces during the régime of the "Reine Pompadour." His men gave him the above sobriquet because of the unlimited license allowed them to pillage and plunder. With an army demoralized by debauchery and want, the officers being followed by a train of courtezans, pedlars, and bangers-on, the soldiers dependent entirely on black mail, he set out for the defeat of Rosbach. For a victory gained by another later, Madame de Pompadour gave Soubise a marshal's baton. See H. Martin, vol XV. pp. 517-21.
161.  I can assure the reader that these sentiments were those of the moment; the events that have taken place almost induced me to strike many such passages out, but it is fairer to all parties to leave them.—Author's note.
162.  "The fairest river in my kingdom," said Henri IV.
163.  Verteuil, in the valley of the Charente. The château has been in part reconstructed by M. de la Rochefoucauld, and is not to be confounded with the magnificent château de la Rochefoucauld, near Angoulême.
164.  (Charente.)
165.  Ibid.
166.  Ibid.
167.  Ibid.
168.  Father of the unfortunate Prince Claude Victor, who accepted command under the Convention, but refusing to acknowledge the Déchéance, was guillotined 1794.
169.  No part of France has more rapidly improved in our own time than Poitou, now forming the three departments of Vendée, Deux Sevres, and la Vienne. I revisited La Vendée in 1885, after an interval of ten years, to find extraordinary progress: agriculture has made great strides, works of public utility have been erected, railways now intersect the country, and, owing to the indefatigable labours of peasant owners, hundreds of thousands of acres of waste land have been put under cultivation. The "unimproved, poor, and ugly country" of Arthur Young is now one vast garden. La Vendée is the region of large farms and stock raising. Mule breeding is carried on largely around Niort.—ED.
170.  Châtellerault (Vieune).
171.  This château, with its fine gardens, still remains, and is in the possession of the Argenson family.
172.  (Indre and Loire.)
173.  Plessis-lès-Tours.
174.  These strange dwellings are being superseded in Maine and Loire by neatly-built cottages, homes of peasant owners.
175.  Now a ruin.
176.  The able and patriotic minister of Louis XV. who restored the French navy, effected the annexation of Lorraine and Corsica to the crown, expelled the Jesuits, and protected Poland. He was banished because he would not acknowledge the authority of the infamous Dubarry. "Tout ce qui restait de l'honneur Française à Versailles en sortit avec Choiseul." H. Martin, vol. xv. The chateau was destroyed in 1830.
177.  (Indre and Loire.)
178.  (Loir and Cher.)
179.  (Loir and Cher.)
180.  Numerous schools of agriculture, to which are attached model farms, now exist in France, supported by the State. State-paid professors of agriculture who lecture gratuitously in the country are now appointed to many chef-lieux.
181.  Notre Dame de Cléry (Loiret).
182.  Pithivier (Loiret).
183.  The works of this celebrated writer on rural economy and vegetable physiology have been translated into English. "A Practical Treatise on Husbandry," London, 1750; "The Elements of Agriculture," translated by Philip Miller, London, 1764. Duhamel died 1782. The château still exists.
184.  (Loiret.) The château of Malesherbes still belongs to the descendants of the noble defender of Louis XVI. here mentioned.
185.  Melun (Seine and Marne).
186.  Sénart (Seine and Marne).
187.  Montgeron (Seine and Oise).
188.  Villeneuve St. Georges (Seine and Oise).
189.  A French traveller, Vaysse de Villiers, visiting Liancourt in 1816, gives a delightful picture of the progress effected by this true humanitarian; numerous industries established, and agriculture furthered by the introduction of hemp, flax, colza, the hop, the vine, besides many vegetables hitherto unknown in these regions.
190.  Clermont de l'Oise (Oise).
191.  Father and persecutor of the great tribune. His famous pamphlet "L'Ami des Hommes," was followed by the "Théorie de l'Impôt," which consigned its author to the Bastille. "L'Ami des hommes et le tyran de sa famille," is the historic verdict passed on the father of Mirabeau.—H. Martin, vol. xvi., p. 180.
192.  Mortefontaine (Oise).
193.  Ermenonville (Oise), on the Soissons railway. Rousseau was interred here in the Ile de Peupliers, but his remains were removed to the Panthéon in 1794.
194.  Marquis de Girardin, the friend of Rousseau, died 1808.
195.  (Oise.)
196.  Pont St. Maixence (Oise).
197.  Catenoy (Oise).
198.  (Oise.)
199.  (Seine and Oise.)
200.  The Palais de Justice, made over to the Parliament of Paris by Charles VII. Very little remains of the original building, which was almost as ancient as the Palais de Thermes. See Lalanne's "Dictionnaire historique de la France."
201.  The opera-house having been burnt in 1781, the Théâtre de la Porte St. Martin for a time used in its stead, was planned and built in seventy-five days. It was completely destroyed by fire during the Commune (1871), and has been since rebuilt.—Lalanne.
202.  At this time the improvement of the plough occupied the attention of all interested in agriculture. In spite of many improvements, the old system remained in vogue throughout the greater part of England, the plough being very heavy, two-wheeled and requiring four horses, a ploughman and a driver! The single-wheeled drill-plough was an immense advance.
203.  Loménie de Brienne, minister. See p. 97.
204.  Lavoisier, guillotined in 1794, fell a victim to the proscription of the "fermiers-généraux," or collectors of the revenue, to which hated body he had belonged in 1769. His wife, daughter of a "fermier-général," escaped the fate of her husband, and married Count Romford in 1805, from whom she was shortly afterwards separated. She aided Lavoisier in his experiments and published his "Mémoires de Chimie." See for his efforts on behalf of French agriculture the work of MM. Pigeonneau and de Foville before named.
205.  The Place de la Concorde.
206.  The privilege of holding an opéra comique in Paris was first accorded in 1647, and this opera was afterwards amalgamated with the Comédie Italienne, under which title Louis XVI. granted state patronage to the company. When Arthur Young wrote, representations were given in a building occupying the site of the Opéra Comique, recently destroyed by fire. The Comédie Francaise mentioned above, was installed in the building erected in 1782, and burnt down in 1799, afterwards reconstructed, and now known as the Odéon. By the Théâtre Français alluded to further on, is evidently meant the above company.—Lalanne.
207.  This masterpiece of Girardon, hidden during the Revolution, is replaced in the church of the Sorbonne. The pleureuses, or weeping figures are portraits of the cardinal's nieces.
208.  Richard Kirwan, 1734-1812, author of many scientific and philosophical works.
209.  Whitehurst's "Formation of the Earth," 2nd edit. p. 6.—Author's note.
210.  No mention of this inventor of a mechanical system of telegraph occurs in Lalanne's biographical dictionary, but aerial telegraphy invented by Chappe was put into use by the Convention in 1794. See Lalanne.
211.  Messier, Charles, 1770-1817.
212.  It was the fate of Louis XVI. to have the worst ministers as well as the best; after Turgot and Malesherbes, Calonne and Loménie de Brienne, Archbishop of Toulouse. Called to a task for which Sully or Richelien must have proved inadequate, Calonne played with the fortunes of France as a desperate gamester, doubling the stakes in the face of ruin. During the space of a few years the loans had reached the figure of 1,250 millions, and the annual deficit of the budget, 115 milllions. This revelation resulted in his fall. In 1789 he became the agent of the emigrant nobles at Turin. His successor Loménie de Brienne, Archbishop of Toulouse, afterwards of Sens, had, in the words of Mignet, only hopeless courses before him, and could decide upon none. The queen's favour followed him into exile, and he received a cardinal's hat, but went over to the popular side when revolution seemed the winning game. He committed suicide in 1794.—Mignet, vol. i., H. Martin, vol. xvi.
213.  In transcribing these papers for the press, I smile at some remarks and circumstances which events have since placed in a singular position; but I alter none of these passages; they explain what were the opinions in France, before the revolution, on topics of importance; and the events which have since taken place render them the more interesting. June, 1790.—Author's note.
214.  This veterinary school still exists.
215.  Philibert Chabert, 1734-1814.
216.  The Ecole Militaire was suppressed by the Revolution, and from that time the building has been used as cavalry barracks.
217.  Like most of the theatres mentioned here, since burnt and rebuilt.
218.  Neuilly, this famous bridge was built by Perronet.
219.  Lucienne, the pavilion of Madame Dubarry, still stands.
220.  Sèvres (Seine and Oise).The famous porcelain manufactory was established by Louis XV. in 1756.
221.  Japanese Japonica
222.  Sir W.Chambers (1726-1796), an architect of distinction, laid out the royal gardens at Kew, wrote inter alia, "Dissertation on Chinese Gardening."
223.  Mr. Brown seems to be Robert Brown of Mickle, contributor to the "Edinburgh Farmers' Magazine," 1757-1831.
224.  Parmentier was the apostle of the potato in France. Turgot had indeed introduced it as an article of human food into the Limousin and the south. Parmentier was mainly instrumental in extending its use throughout the entire country. The poor king aided him, and wore as a "button-hole," a potato blossom. This worthy follower of Olivier de Serres devoted his whole life to the solution of two problems, the arrest of periodic famines, and the increase of food supplies. He also greatly furthered the cultivation of maize and improved bread baking; died 1813.—See H. Martin, vol. xvi. p. 523.
225.  (Oise.)
226.  Dammartin (Seine and Marne).
227.  Nanteuil-le-Hardouin (Oise).
228.  Villers-Cotterets (Aisne).
229.  Soissons (Ibid.).
230.  Coucy (Ibid.).
231.  St. Gobain (Ibid.).
232.  La Fére (Ibid.).
233.  St. Quintin (Ibid.)
234.  Bellenglise (Ibid.).
235.  This canal was completed by Napoleon I. in 1810. A communication was thereby opened between the river Scheldt and the extreme eastern departments of France and the Atlantic through the rivers Somme, Seine and Loire.
236.  (Nord.) Famous for its batiste or cambric, so called after Baptiste, the inventor, whose statue adorns the Esplanade
237.  Bouchain (Nord).
238.  (Nord.)
239.  Orchies (Ibid.).
240.  Lille (Ibid.).
241.  D'armentières or Armentières (Nord).
242.  Cassel on the Mont Cassel (Nord).
243.  (Nord.)
244.  Le Rosendael.
245.  (Nord.)
1.  (Pas de Calais.)
2.  Aire-sur-la-Lys (Pas de Calais).
3.  Lillers (Pas de Calais).
4.  Béthune (Pas de Calais).
5.  Arras (Pas de Calais).
6.  Ancient Benedictine abbey of St. Vaast, now appropriated to the bishop's palace, seminary, museum, and public library.
7.  (Somme.)
8.  Passed on the railway from Rouen to Amiens (Seine Inférieure).
9.  Aumale, the ancient Albemarle (Seine Inférieure).
10.  Neufchâtel, anciently a fortress (Seine Inférieure).
11.  (Seine Inférieure.) A very different impression is now made on the traveller by the French Manchester, one of the handsomest provincial towns in France. It is odd that so many-sided an observer should have halted at Rouen without a souvenir of Jeanne d' Arc.
12.  On the railway from Rouen to Havre (Seine Inférieure)
13.  Yvetot (Seine Inférieure).
14.  Bolbec-Nointat, station, omnibus to Bolbec. There is a river of the same name.
15.  Le Hâvre (Seine Inférieure).
16.  (Seine Inférieure)
17.  The harbour consists now of the Avant-port, or tidal harbour and eight floating docks.
18.  Dicquemare (Jacques Francois), 1733-1789, a distinguished naturalist and astronomer.
19.  Probably Slavers. See for particulars of this horrible traffic, E. Souvestre's "En Bretagne," p. 166. The Convention in 1794 abolished slavery throughout the French dominions, prohibited slave-dealing, and granted full civil rights to negroes. Napoleon I. (1802) re-established slavery and slave-dealing, and it remained for the second republic to undo his work in 1848.—See Lalanne's "Dict. Hist. De la France."
20.  Pont Audemer.
21.  Pont l'Evêque (Calvados).
22.  La vallée d'Auge, celebrated for its pastures (Calvados).
23.  (Calvados.)
24.  (Calvados.)
25.  A suburb of Falaise (Calvados).
26.  The church of St. Etienne, or the Abbaye aux Hommes.
27.  The château de Fontaine-Henri, a few miles from Caen, built in the early part of sixteenth century, interior not shown to strangers.
28.  (Calvados.)
29.  Here is entered the peninsula of the Cotentin (Manche).
30.  Isigny (Manche).
31.  Valognes (Manche).
32.  The toise, measure of six feet.
33.  The famous breakwater or digue of Cherbourg was not completed till our own time at a cost of two and a half millions sterling, fifty years' labour and four million cubic feet of stone. The area enclosed by the digue amounts to 1,000 hectares
34.  Archipelago of Chausey.
35.  Granville (Manche).
36.  Pontorson, on the branch railway from Vitré (Manche).
37.  Dol (Ille and Vilaine).
38.  (Ille and Vilaine.)
39.  Chateaubriand, the writer, spent part of his childhood here. In his "Mémoires d' outre Tombe," he often recurs to the scenes amid which his youth was passed.
40.  Hédé (Ille and Vilaine).
41.  The count de Blossac, after whom the promenade of Poitiers is called.
42.  (Ille and Vilaine.)
43.  Le Thabor.
44.  Mountauban-de-Bretagne (Ille and Vilaine).
45.  See, for an account of the extraordinary progress in Brittany, the contributions of M. H. Bandrillart, of the Institut, to the "Revue des deux Mondes," Oct. 15, Nov. 15, 1884.
46.  Broons (Côtes du Nord).
47.  (Côtes du Nord.)
48.  (Côtes du Nord.)
49.  (Côtes du Nord.)
50.  Chateaulandrin (Côtes du Nord).
51.  Belle-Isle-Bégard (Côtes du Nord).
52.  (Finistère.)
53.  Landivisiau (Finistère).
54.  Landerneau (Finistère).
55.  (Finistère.)
56.  The Léonnais of which St. Pol de Léon was formerly capital (Finistère).
57.  Tréguier (Côtes du Nord).
58.  Quimper and Quimperle (Finistère) are beautifully situated and possess beautiful churches.
59.  Lorient (Morbihau).
60.  Hennebont (Morbihan).
61.  (Morbihan.)
62.  (Morbihan.)
63.  Muzillac (Morbihan).
64.  Belle-lle-en-Mer (Morbihan), the most important island of the department, and well cultivated.
65.  The isles of Hœdic and Honat (Le Canard and Le Camelot).
66.  Lauvergnae (Loire Inférieure), now the seat of M. de Mondoret; it is passed on the way from Guérande to St. Nazaire.
67.  Afterwards General of Division of the Republican armies in Belgium and La Vendée, died 1793.
68.  St. Nazaire (Loire Inférieure).
69.  Savenay (Loire Inférieure), here took place the final dispersion of the Vendean army.
70.  The island of Indret is evidently meant, the great State factory of arms at the present day.
71.  It wanted no great spirit of prophecy to foretell this; but latter events have shewn that I was very wide of the mark when I talked of fifty years.—Author's Note.
72.  Twelve Breton gentlemen deputed to Versailles with a denunciation of the ministers for their suspension of provincial parliaments. They were at once sent to the Bastille. It was this war of the king and the parliaments that brought about the assembly of the States-General, the step being decided on by the assembly of Grenoble, July 21, 1788. See II. Martin, vol. xvi., p 608, et seq.
73.  Ancenis (Loire Inférieure).
74.  St. Georges-sur-Loire (Maine and Loire).
75.  La Meignanne.
76.  Durtal (Maine and Loire). This Château still exists, partly restored. It belonged to the two Marshals Schomberg.
77.  Turbilly (Maine and Loire). This Château, XVIIth. Cent., still exists, and is in possession of the De Broc family.
78.  This writer would appear to be the translator of Count Gyllenborg's "Elements of Husbandry," 1770, and spoken of in no polite terms as "Agriculture Mills" in a letter from John Gray to Smollett, 1771. Mills also translated Virgils "Georgies," 1780.
79.  Kaolin was discovered in France in 1760. The magnificent beds near Limoges were discovered by the wife of a country doctor in 1768.
80.  (Sarthe.)
81.  La Guierche (Sarthe).
82.  (Orne.)
83.  Beaumount-sur-Sarthe (Sarthe).
84.  Nouans (Sarthe).
85.  (Orne.)
86.  (Eure.)
87.  Broglie (Eure). This château still exists.
88.  (Seine Inférieure.)
89.  Suburb of Paris; the calcined gypsum referred to is now known as "Plaster of Paris."
90.  The miles from Rouen on the Amiens railway (ibid).
91.  Pont de l'Arche, Junction Station.
92.  One of the principal cloth manufacturing towns of France (Eure).
93.  (Eure.)
94.  (Eure.)
95.  The old château de Bizy was replaced in 1866 by a new building in the style of Louis XIV.
96.  This château has been reconstructed, parts of the ancient building remaining. It still belongs to the family of La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt.
97.  Author of "Voyage à Madagascar et aux Indes Orientales," died 1817.
98.  I once knew it at the duc de Liancourt's.—Author's Note.
99.  Tôtes (Seine Inférieure).
1.  Berchtold Count Leopold de, a distinguished German Philanthropist, born 1738, died 1809. He travelled for fifteen years over Europe, Asia, and Africa, for the purpose of disseminating philanthropic tracts, and was one of the most active members of the Royal Humane Society. He fell a victim to his devotion in attending the sick and wounded Austrian soldiers after the battle of Wagram.
2.  Reach used in a sense now obsolete—extent of capacity.
"Be sure yourself and your own reach to know".—POPE.
3.  The States-General had assembled 5th May of this year, composed of 308 representatives of the clergy, 285 of the nobles, 621 of the Tiers état, or Commons (Lalanne).
4.  "Tout l'avenir de la France était dans la séparation ou dans la réunion des orders" (Mignet).
5.  The Café Foy (J. Bignon), Boulevard des Italiens, No. 38, corner of the Chaussée d'Antin.
6.  The author of the most famous pamphlet ever written, began his political career as a pioneer of democracy, and ended it as an apostle of despotism. He voted the death of the king, but knew how to take care of his won head. His maxim was "Vivre." Effacing himself completely during the Terror, he appeared again on the scene under the Directory, and was the main abettor of Napoleon to the Coup d'Etat of the 18th Brumaire. Died 1836.
7.  The brilliant, but somewhat unscrupulous Jesuit, expelled his order for free theological views. Although latterly obnoxious to the Revolutions, Raynal escaped the Terror, and died poor in 1796. Charlotte Corday delighted in his writings.
8.  Arthur Young's enthusiasm on the subject of turnips may be understood when we remember that this invaluable esculent was not cultivated as food for cattle till the latter part of the last century.
9.  Here is a portrait of Philippe Egalité by a contemporary. "Le duc, sans talents, décrié par une vie crapuleuse, par une avidité d'argent, répréhensible dans un particulier, honteuse, avillissante dans un prince, avait tous les vices qui font haïr les crimes, et n'avait pas une des qualités brillantes qui l'illustrent en quelque sorte aux yeux de la posterité. Il fallait animer ce cadaver moral, lui donner une apparente volonté; on lui montre le pouvoir suprême sous le nom de lieutenant général du royaume; tout l'argent du trésor public à sa disposition, et dans un avenir qu'il ne tiendrait qu'à lui de rapprocher, la couronne pour ses enfans."—Mémoires du Marquis de Ferrières, p. 9, Paris, 1880.
10.  The Duc de Penthièvre was grandson of Louis XIV, and Mdme, de Montespan, and son of the Count of Toulouse.
11.  The Bibliothèque Nationale, Rue de Richelieu.
12.  The Archbishop of Aix was a staunch upholder of the supremacy of the Church, and headed the refractory clergy after the decrees of June and July, 1790.
13.  The Bishop of Blois was replaced by an "évéque constitutionel" in 1790.
14.  Thomas Pitt, nephew of the first Earl of Chatham, author of "Tracts on the American War."
15.  Sir James Eyre, afterwards Baron of the Exchequer. In 1793 one of the commissioners of the Great Seal afterwards Chief Justice of the Common Pleas.
16.  "Ancien précepteur et conseiller intime de Marie Antoinette, précepteur qui ne lui avait rien apris, conseiller qui ne lui donnait—jamais que de pernicieux avis, vrai Maurepas de Marie Antoinette, aussi égoïste et moins sagace que le fatal ministre de Louis XVI. H. Martin, vol. xvi. p. 556. The Abbé de Vermont very prudently quitted France after the fall of the Bastille.
17.  The Duke and Duchess de Polignac, after having received countless honours, privileges, and substantial favours from Louis XVI. and the queen, were the first to desert them. Like the Abbé de Vermont, they fled after the 14th July, 1789.
18.  See Mémoires de Montlosier for many interesting notes on Necker and his fall, chs. 3, 4, 5.
19.  I have since cultivated these plants in small quantities, and believe them to be a very important object.—Author's Note.
20.  An eminent botanist has kindly elucidated this passage:—"A very full list of the plants in cultivation at Paris was published by Desfontaines, first edition, 1804. Ours (Royal Herbarium, Kew) is the third edition, and is called 'Catalogus Plantarum Horti Regii Parisiensis,' 1829. Hortus regii evidently means the Jardin des Plantes. I find no mention of any Lathyrus biennis, and should guess that it means Lathyrus sativus (Chickling Vetch). There is also named a Melilotus Siberiei, afterwards called Medicago Siberiei by De Candolle, but it is unknown to the last author of a Russian flora. Achillæa Siberiei is a near ally of our common English Achillæa Ptarmica (Sneezewort). Astragalus may well have been some specimen of that very large genus. Chinese hemp is evidently one of the many varieties of Cannabis sativa."
21.  Mounier (Jean Joseph), deputé of the Dauphiné, and friend of Necker, is a leading figure in the early period of the Revolution. On his proposition, the members of the Tiers Etat took the celebrated oath of the Jeu de Paume. He was in favour of a constitutional monarchy on the English model, but retired from the assembly when all hopes of an understanding between the court and the nation were at an end.
22.  Rabaud St. Etienne was one of the first Protestant ministers in France to exercise his newly acquired civil rights. Imbued with the revolutionary spirit, yet an eloquent pleader for law, order, and mercy, he fell a victim to his generous defence of royalty. In the letters of Helen Maria Williams (1795) she thus describes him:—"A few weeks after our release from prison Rabaud St. Etienne was put to death. He was one of the most enlightened and virtuous men whom the revolution had called forth, and had acquired general esteem by his conduct as a legislator, and considerable reputation by his talents as a writer. I saw him on that memorable day (the expulsion of the Girondins from the convention) filled with despair, not so much from the loss of his own life, which he considered inevitable, as for that of the liberty of his country, now falling under the vilest despotism." Betrayed by a friend, he was guillotined 1793.
23.  Barnave, 1761-1793. Ardent revolutionary, and chivalrous gentleman, deputed by the assembly to meet the captured royal family at Epernay and escort them to Paris. Barnave's sympathies were evoked by the sufferings of the prisoners, and in trying to save their lives he lost his own. What irony is lent to Burke's famous peroration by the careers of such men as Barnave and Rabaud St. Etienne! If, indeed, a thousand swords did not leap from their scabbards to avenge so much as a look that threatened Marie Antoinette with insult, many brave, ambitious, and generous patriots were cut off in the flower of their youth for having interceded on behalf of royalty. Barnave was a Protestant.
24.  Bailly, Jean Sylvain, more familiar to us as President of the National Assembly, and first Mayor of Paris, than a brilliant astronomer, was born 1736. Guillotined 1793. This single-minded patriot forfeited his popularity for having allowed the National Guard to fire on the people in 1791 when riotously demanding "la déchéance." Bailly's great "History of Astronomy" was published in Paris, 1775-87.
25.  Hatsell's "Precedents of the House of Commons."
26.  Wild chicory, succory,
27.  Reports verified later. "In the beginning of the year 1790 Mirabeau entered into relations with the court, and pledged himself to its interests in consideration of a large bribe."—Lalanne. See for much light on this subject the Mémoires de Ferrières, and Mémories de Montlosier The first inerview between Mirabeau and the kind and queen took place in a cellar of the Tuilleries.
28.  See Curlyle on "The Diamond Necklace," "Misc. Essays."
29.  The Abbé Commerell introduced mangel wurzel into France.
30.  Sablonville, between Neuilly and St. Denis.
31.  "Ce jour-là lut perdue l'autorité royale. L'initiative des lois et la puissance morale passèrent du monarque à l'assemblée" (Mignet).
32.  This historic tennis-court is still to be seen in the Rue St. François, Versailles.
33.  The cathedral church of St. Louis, built 1743.
34.  Armand, Marc, 1745-1792, Ambassador in Spain, afterwards Minister of Foreign Affairs, and in the confidence of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette. A victim of the September massacres.
35.  François, Emmanuel, 1735-1821, Ambassador in Spain, Turkey, and Holland, afterwards Minister of the Interior. He quitted France in Dec., 1790, and was afterwards Private Secretary of Louis XVIII.
36.  Chapelier (Isaac le), 1754-1794. The upright and eloquent President of the Assemblée Legislative, and at the onset of the Revolution an uncompromising antagonist of the Abbé Maury, and the reactionaries. Later he headed the party in favour of constitutional monarchy, and in consequence was arraigned before the Revolutionary Tribunal.
37.  This brilliant advocate, although a determined opponent of the court, was selected by Louis XVI. to defend him. Target refused the hazardous task, which was at once undertaken by the venerable Malesherbes and young Deséze. He nevertheless published his "Observations sur le procès de Louis XVI.," pointing to an acquittal. He was instrumental in drawing up the Code Civil, and died in 1806.
38.  If they had knocked him on the head, he would not have been an object of much pity. At a meeting of the society of agriculture in the country, where common farmers were admitted to dine with people of that first rank, this proud fool made difficulties of sitting down in such company.—Author's note.
39.  The poor "proud fool" was a victim of the September massacres three years later. The archbishop died in 1790. The cardinal joined the emigrés.
40.  Several French plays bear this name.
41.  I may remark at present, long after this was written, that, although I was totally mistaken in my prediction, yet, on a revision, I think I was right in it, and that the common course of events would have produced such a civil war, to which every thing tended, from the moment the commons rejected the king's propositions of the seance royale, which I now think, more than ever, that they ought, with qualification, to have accepted. The events that followed were as little to be thought of as of myself being made king of France.—Author's note.
42.  (Seine and Marne.)
43.  Ibid.
44.  Portions of this château remain in good preservation.
45.  Probably Montigny-Le Roi (Hte. Marne). There are four towns of this name in eastern France.
46.  Lamoignon was associated with Brienne de Loménie in the establishment of the cour plénière, a measure which did more than anything else to hasten the Revolution. During the Middle Ages, the name had been applied to assemblages of the king and his vassals on the occasion of fêtes or tourneys. Under an obsolete title, Louis XVI. established a kind of High Court, suspending the provincial parliaments, and investing judicial power in himself, his ministers, and the court. Lamoignon, like Brienne, committed suicide. See H. Martin, vol. xvi. ch. 106.
47.  At the time Arthur Young wrote boxing formed a regular exhibition, and a theatre was opened for it in the Strand. Mendoza opened the Lyceum in 1791.
48.  (Seine and Marne.)
49.  Coulommiers. There are several places of this name in France, the derivation of the word being Colombier, a place for rearing pigeons (Seine and Marne).
50.  Rozoy-en-Brie (Seine and Marne).
51.  Maupertuis (ibid.).
52.  Soldier, politician, littérateur. He separated himself from the court after the flight to Varennes, commanded the victorious Republican army in Savoy, but being accused of monarchical sympathies, retired to Switzerland in 1792. Died 1798.
53.  The Comté de Brie, in Champagne, now forming part of the department of Seine and Marne, famous for its cheeses.
54.  Neufmontier, near Meaux.
55.  Château-Thierry (Aisne).
56.  Mareuil-sur-Ay (Marne).
57.  (Marne.)
58.  (Marne.)
59.  (Ibid.)
60.  (Marne.)
61.  First called the Comte de Genlis; he was afterwards member of the Convention, guillotined 1793.
62.  Châlons-sur-Marne (Marne).
63.  Auve, on the river of that name (Marne).
64.  Courtisois, a curious Celtic community (Marne).
65.  St. Menehould (Marne).
66.  Les Islettes. This "collection of dirt and dung" is historic. From the neighbouring village of Grandpré, Dumouriez wrote to the Minister of War in September, 1792. "J'attends les Prussiens. Le camp de Grandpré et celui des Islettes sont les Thermopyles do la France; mais je serai plus heureux que Léonidas."—MIGNET. The prophecy was not strictly fulfilled. The Prussians foiled his manœuvres at Grandpré; but a few days later the victory of Valmy saved the Republic.
67.  Mars-la-Tour (Meurthe and Moselle).
68.  Metz, former chef-lieu of the department of the Moselle, now annexed to Prussia.
69.  Needless perhaps to remind the reader that on this day took place the storming of the Bastile.
70.  Echaudé, galette or fritter.
71.  Pont-á-Mousson (Meurthe and Moselle).
72.  Our author was misinformed here. The Prémontrés having resisted alike the authority of the Bishop of Metz, the King and the Pope, had been finally replaced, as a teaching body, by the Jesuits under Louis XIII. The convent of St. Eloi, originally occupied by the Prémontrés, was exchanged by their successors for the more commodious house of des Petits Carmes, in 1635, and it is of this that Arthur Young evidently wrote. The buildings are now appropriated as Caisse d'Epargne and Maison de I'iété, and the church as a Public Library and Museum. The library contains many illuminated MSS. The country curés, largely recruited from this order, rendered much service to agriculture. See "L'administration de l'agriculture, 1785-7."
73.  (Meurthe and Moselle.) This department was formed from what remained of the two of that name, the greater part of which was annexed to Germany in 1871.
74.  (Meurthe and Moselle.) Luneville is now the seat of a flourishing and beautiful faïence manufactory.
75.  Héming, French; Hemingen, German.
76.  Saverne, French; Zabern, German.
77.  Phalsburg, formerly in the department of Meurthe, now annexed to Germany.
78.  Formerly chef-lieu of the department of Bas Rhin, now annexed to Prussia.
79.  Schleltstadt, German; Schlestadt, French, formerly in the department of Bas Rhin, now annexed to Germany.
80.  Schnitz is a name applied to any fruit cut and dried in the oven.
81.  Ensisheim, now Prussian.
82.  Colmar was formerly chef-lieu of the department of the Haut Rhin, now annexed to Germany.
83.  Belfort, formerly in the department of Haut Rhin, now chef-lieu of the department of the Territoire de Belfort, created in 1871; a fortified place of the first importance, and saved from annexation by the efforts of M. Thiers.
84.  L'Isle-sur-le-Doubs (Doubs).
85.  Baume-les-Dames amid very picturesque scenery (Doubs).
86.  (Doubs.)
87.  (Haute Saône.)
88.  (Jura.)
89.  (Ibid.)
90.  Orchamps (Doubs).
91.  St. Vit (ibid.).
92.  Dôle (Jura).
93.  (Côte-d'Or.) This little walled-in town resisted all the attacks of the Germans in 1871.
94.  Guyton de Morveau, born at Dijon, 1732, died 1813. His house still remains. Distinguished scientist and littérateur. He became a member of the Legislative Assembly, and joined in the regicide vote; on the creation of Ecole Polytechnique, under the Convention he was named director. His services to science, industry, education, and the public health were considerable, and he wrote many works of value in their day.
95.  Seneffe, Belgium, a somewhat indecisive battle between the Dutch, under the Prince of Orange, afterwards William III. and the French, let by the great Condé, 11th August, 1674,
96.  Burial place of the Duke of Burgundy, just outside Dijon. Here is still seen the magnificent piece of sculpture called Moses' Well.
97.  (Hte. Marne.)
98.  (Hte. Saône.)
99.  Scheele, Karl, August, 1724-1786. Swedish scientist and discoverer.
100.  Panckoucke, Charles Joseph, 1736-1798. Celebrated son of the distinguished bookseller of that name, editor with Beaumarchais and others of the "Encyclopédie Méthodique," and many valuable works. His son was a littérateur of some distinction.
101.  Concerning the lesser lights in this galaxy of illustrious Dijonnais, here are a few facts. Fevrette de Fontette, archæologist and historic writer, 1710-1772; Chas. de Brosses, 1709-1777, president of the Dijon Parliament, savant and littéraire; Bonhier, Jean, 1673-1746, a writer on philosophy, jurisprudence, history, antiquities, of whom D'Alembert wrote: "Il fit ses preuves dans tous les genres et dans la plupart il fit des œuvres distinguées." His splendid library enriched that of Dijon, Montpellier, and other towns.
102.  Bayes is the hero of the Duke of Buckingham's farce, "The Rehearsal," in which a battle is fought between foot-soldiers and great hobby-horses.
103.  (Côte d'Or.)
104.  Nuits (ibid.).
105.  This celebrated vineyard was created by the monks of Citeaux. The abbey and grounds are now used as a juvenile penitentiary and orphanage, under State control.
106.  Chagny (Saône and Loire).
107.  The canal here alluded to is the canal du Centre.
108.  (Saône and Loire).
109.  (Saône and Loire.)
110.  Ibid.
111.  Luzy (Nièvre).
112.  (Saône and Loire.)
113.  "Fat farmers" innumerable may now be seen at the September (Autun) fair. Every kind of land tenure exists in this part of France, and métayage has greatly advanced the condition of the peasants.
114.  Chevagnes (Allier).
115.  Moulins (ibid.). Here is a different account of Moulins written just twenty-three years later: "Moulins offre aux voyageurs des bains propres, un joli café, une patite salle de spectacle, une riche bibliothèque publique et de charmants promenades."—Vaysse de Villiers, "Description de l'Empire Français," 1813.
116.  Château de Ryau, at Villeneuve-sur-Allier, now in ruins.
117.  "The Bourbonnais, the sweetest part of France."—STERNE.
118.  St. Pourçain (Allier).
119.  Châteauneuf (Puy de Dôme).
120.  (Puy de Dôme.)
121.  Montferrand, formerly a considerable town and fortress, may now be considered a suburb of Clermont-Ferrand, chef-lieu of the department of the Puy de Dôme.
122.  Royat (Puy de Dôme).
123.  Issoire (Puy de Dôme).
124.  Brioude (Hte. Loire).
125.  Lempdes, Station (Puy de Dôme).
126.  Fix-Saint-Geneys (Hte. Loire).
127.  Chomette (Hte. Loire).
128.  Paulhaguet (Hte. Loire).
129.  St. Georges-d'Aurac (Hte. Loire).
130.  On the railway from Paris to Nismes, travellers alight here to see la Voûte-Chiliac, a picturesque site.
131.  This striking ruin is now shown to strangers.
132.  Costaros (Hte. Loire).
133.  Pradelles (Hte. Loire)
134.  Thueyts (Ardèche).
135.  Mayres (Ardèche).
136.  La coupe d' Aizac, the most characteristic crater of the Vivarais, is best visited from Antraigues-sur-Volane, a picturesque village about eight miles from Aubenas, by way of Vals, the miniature Vichy of the Ardèche.
137.  La Gravenne, ascended from Thueyts.
138.  (Ardèche), full of souvenirs of Oliver de Serres. The house in which the great agriculturist was born still exists.
139.  (Ardèche.)
140.  Le Pradel, close to Villeneuve de Berg.
141.  A statue of de Serres now adorns Villeneuve de Berg, also a pyramidal monument to his memory, and a street and square are named after him.
142.  (Ardèche), the ancient capital of the Vivarais.
143.  Montélimar (Drôme).
144.  Few of our author's numerous introductory letters brought him a more distinguished acquaintance than this. M. Faujas St. Fond, afterwards his visitor at Bradfield, is known as one of the creators of the science of geology in France. His English and Scotch Travels have been translated, Died 1819.
145.  Loriol (Drôme).
146.  Setier, ancient measure of land, as much as could be sowed with a setier (156 litres), of corn.
147.  In 1788, Louis XVI. acting on former advice of Turgot, had passed a decree ameliorating the condition of Protestants in France. They were still ineligible for civil appointments, but were permitted to celebrate worship, their marriages, were now legal, and their children legitimate before the law. Entire liberty of conscience and civil equality were decreed by the National Assembly a year later.
148.  Rochemaure (Ardèche), one of the most striking objects seen by the traveller steaming from Lyons to Avignon.
149.  Pierrelatte (Drôme).
150.  (Vaucluse.)
151.  A celebrated captain who served Henri IV.
152.  "Le père visiteur" is charged with the inspection of religious houses of his order.
153.  We were, like you, struck with the resemblance of the women at Avignon to those of England, but not for the reason you give; it appeared to us to originate from their complexions being naturally so much better than that of the other French women, more than their head-dress, which differs as much from ours, as it does from the French:—Note by a female friend to Arthur Young.
154.  L'Isle, stat. (Vaucluse), on an island surrounded by branches of the Sorgues.
155.  (Bouches du Rhône.)
156.  (Bouches du Rhône.)
157.  St. Chamas (Bouches du Rhône).
158.  Aix-en-Provence (Bouches du Rhône).
159.  Tour d'Aigues (Bouches du Rhône). The Château here spoken of is now a ruin.
160.  Cujés, a poor-looking town near which the caper is cultivated.
161.  (Bouches du Rhône.)
162.  Ollioules (Var), in the valley of the Reppe, famous for its orange trees and immortelles.
163.  Elizabeth, Lady Craven, who after a Platonic friendship of many years' standing, married the Margrave of Anspach, and was the author of works of travel, and an autobiography.
164.  Notre Dame, a favourite pilgrimage.
165.  The Isles d'Hyères or Isles d'Or, viz.:—
165. Porquerolles (300 inhabitants, 5 miles long).
165. Port Cros.
165. Levant or Titan, is the largest and most beautiful, and contains a penitentiary for boys.
166.  Jasminium commune fructicans, yellow jasmine.
167.  Genista candicans, hoary genista.
168.  Teucrium herba rota in other editions; both equally unintelligible.
169.  St. Tropez (Var).
170.  Fréjus (Var). The river does not enter the department thus named.
171.  (Alpes Maritimes.)
172.  (Alpes Maritimes.)
173.  Villefranche (Alpes Maritimes). A visit to Villefranche is now one of the most delightful excursions from Nice.
174.  The French diary ends on the 19th Sept., and is resumed on the 21st Dec.
175.  Ramasse (Ital. ramazzo), a sledge pushed by a man down snow-covered mountain slopes.—LITTRÉ.
176.  Lans-le-Bourg (Savoie).
177.  (Savoie.)
178.  (Savoie.)
179.  St. Jean de Maurienne (Savoie), original seat of the Dukes of Savoy.
180.  (Savoie.)
181.  Aiguebelle (Savoie).
182.  Malataverne (Savoie).
183.  (Savoie.)
184.  "S'il est une petite ville au monde ou l'on goûte la douceur de la vie dans un commerce agréable et sur c'est Chambêry." (Confessions.)
185.  Savoy and the Comté de Nice, were annexed to France in 1860, from which were formed the departments of (1) La Savoie, (2) La Hte. Savoie, (3) Les Alpes Maritimes.
186.  Pont de Beauvoisin (Isère or Savoie).
187.  La tour du Pin, Stat. (Isère).
188.  La Verpilière (Isère).
189.  Bourgoin (Isère), in 1768, Rousseau resided here.
190.  Virgil, Georgies, iii. v. 113
"Praise great estates, cultivate small ones."
191.  Madame Roland had travelled in England and entertained a very high notion of the English nation. See her Memoirs.
192.  Les Arnas (Rhône).
193.  Tarare (Rhône).
194.  St. Symphorien-de-Laye (Loire).
195.  Roanne (Loire).
196.  (Allier.)
197.  St. Gérand le Puy (Allier.)
198.  (Nièvre.)
199.  (Nièvre), now much resorted to for its mineral waters.
200.  Pouilly-sur-Loire (Nièvre).
201.  (Loiret.) The canal thus named connects the Loire with the Seine by joining the Canal du Loing at Montargis.
202.  (Seine and Marne.)
203.  The ill-judged banquets given to the Flemish troops at Versailles when the people were starving, had mainly brought about the terrible events of October 1-5, the storming of the palace, and the enforced journey of the royal family to Paris. But Louis XVI. had still a chance, aye, more than one of inaugurating constitutional monarchy. Even after the flight from Varennes, do we not find him warmly welcomed in the Assembly, his conciliatory speech applauded with cries of "Un discours à la Henri Quatre! Vive le roi." (See MIGNET.) This estimable, and considering all things, extraordinarily enlightened monarch, fell a victim to his domestic virtues. But for his exaggerated devotion to Marie Antoinette, his over-weening family affections, he would have kept faith with the nation. Again and again he swore the most solemn oaths to maintain the constitution; five minutes' conference with his wife, the mother of his heir, and he was once more plotting to restore the ancien régime by armed force.
204.  The Assembly had followed the king to Paris and held its sittings, first in the Archbishop's palace, afterwards in the Manége, or riding ground of the Tuilleries gardens, where a temporary building was erected for the purpose.
205.  A learned friend, M. Dugast-Matifeux, of Montaigu (Vendée), sends me the following elucidation of this passage. "Having carefully examined the allusion I am of opinion that it is not Volney, as you suggest, but Sieyès, to whom Arthur Young refers, Sieyès, whom Mirabeau often styled 'Mahomet,' and Robespierre, with his habitual aptness, 'the mole' (la loupe) of the Republic. Moreover, Young had evidently no mere work of description or philosophy in his mind, but a purely political one of the period, in harmony with public opinion and contemporary events. Sieyès had just published his celebrated pamphlet, thereby obtaining enormous popularity."
206.  Condorcet (Marquis de), celebrated geometer, philosopher and politician, represented Paris in the National Assembly, and the Aisne in the Convention. His integrity, brilliant talent and moderation gave him a leading place in both bodies. He opposed the execution of the King, and was proscribed after the fall of the Girondins. The story runs that the mathematician to whom tremendous problems were child's play, lost his life because he did not know how many eggs are used in an omelette. The anthor of the "Progrès de l'Esprit Humain," had fled from the proscriptions of Robespierre, to Auteuil, and entering an auberge demanded an omelette. "How many eggs thereto, eitoyen?" asked the housewife. "A dozen," answered the poor philosopher innocently. Such ignorance of domestic economy betrayed the aristocrat in the eyes of the landlady and he was arrested, but eluded the guillotine by means of poison. His wife, the translator of Adam Smith, survived him. She edited her husband's works. Died 1822.
207.  The famous author of the "Voyage en Egypte," represented Anjou in the Tiers Etat, escaped the guillotine by the fall of Robespierre, and was appointed by the Convention professor in the newly established Ecole Normale. He became a count and senator under the Empire.
208.  Chambre des vacations, chambre changé de rendre la justice pendant la vacation.—LITTRÉ.
209.  The Abbé Maury was one of the ablest and least scrupulous defenders of the ancien régime in the States General. "Quoique avec beaucoup de talent, il manquait de ce qui le vivifie, la vérité. Maury ajoutait les erreurs de son esprit à celles qui étaient inséparables de sa cause,"—MIGNET. In 1807, Bonaparte made him a cardinal; after the fall of the Empire he quitted France, and died at Rome. 1817.
210.  Count de Clermont-Tonnerre (not to be confounded with the Marquis de Clermont), deputé of the noblesse at the States General, he warmly espoused the cause of the people, voluntarily surrendered all seigneurial rights, and demanded civil rights for Protestants, Jews, and comedians. Massacred by his own servants in 1792.
211.  It was a late transaction.—Author's Note.
212.  The Baron de Besenval with the Marquis de Favras and Monsieur, the King's brother, was accused of plotting against the constitution. Besenval obtained his liberty, but Favras was executed. The scheme was to place the king at the head of an army at Péronne.
213.  This rich collection was afterwards dispersed throughout Europe.
214.  Bougainville, Louis Antoine Comte de (1729-1811). The discoverer of the Samoan group, or Navigator's Islands, was as famous in his own country as Cook in our own. His "Description d'un voyage an tour du Monde," was published in 1771-2
215.  Our author's use of this word is now obsolete.
"How to build ships and dreadful ordnance cast,
216.  A sedition that broke out Dec. 1, 1789. The Count Albert de Riom, and other officers, were thrown into prison, accused of insulting the Garde Nationale. See Le Moniteur, Dec. 11, 1789.
On the Revolution of France.
1.  An anecdote, which I have from an authority to be depended on, will explain the profligacy of government, in respect to these arbitrary imprisonments. Lord Albemarle, when ambassador in France, about the year 1753, negotiating the fixing of the limits of the American colonies, which, three years after, produced the war, calling one day on the minister for foreign affairs, was introduced, for a few minutes, into his cabinet, while he finished a short conversation in the apartment in which he usually received those who conferred with him. As his lordship walked backwards and forwards, in a very small room (a French cabinet is never a large one), he could not help seeing a paper lying on the table, written in a large legible hand, and containing a list of the prisoners in the Bastile, in which the first name was Gordon. When the minister entered, lord Albemarle apologized for his involuntarily remarking the paper; the other replied, that it was not of the least consequence, for they made no secret of the names. Lord A. then said, that he had seen the name of Gordon first in the list, and he begged to know, as in all probability the person of this name was a British subject, on what account he had been put into the Bastile. The minister told him, that he knew nothing of the matter, but would make the proper inquiries. The next time he saw lord Albemarle, he informed him, that, on inquiring into the case of Gordon, he could find no person who could give him the least information; on which he had Gordon himself interrogated, who solemnly affirmed, that he had not the smallest knowledge, or even suspicion, of the cause of his imprisonment, but that he had been confined 30 years; however, added the minister, I ordered him to be immediately released, and he is now at large. Such a case wants no comment.1
1 These notes are by Arthur Young except when specified.—ED.
2.  "Nob. Briey," p. 6, &c. &c.
3.  It is calculated by a writer ("Recherches et Consid. par M. le Baron de Cormeré," tom. ii. p. 187) very well informed on every subject of finance, that, upon an average, there were annually taken up and sent to prison or the gallies, Men, 2340. Women, 896. Children, 201. Total, 3437. 300 of these to the gallies (tom. i. p. 112). The salt confiscated from these miserable people amounted to 12,633 quintals, which, at the mean price of 8 liv. are,......101,064 liv.
4.  "Cahier du tiers état de Meaux," p. 49.
5.  "De Mantes" and "Meulan," p. 38.
6.  Ibid. p. 40.—Also "Nob. & Tiers Etat de Peronne," p. 42. "De Trois ordres de Monfort," p. 28.
7.  "Clergé de Provins & Montereau," p. 35.—"Clergé de Paris," p. 25.—"Clergé de Mantes & Meulan," pp. 45, 46.—"Clergé de Laon," p. 11.—"Nob. de Nemours," p. 17.—"Nob. de Paris," p. 22.—"Nob. d'Arras," p. 29.
8.  "Rennes," art. 12.
9.  "Nevernois," art. 43.
10.  "Tiers Etat de Vannes," p. 24.
11.  "T. Etat Clermont Ferrand," p. 52.
11. "T. Etat Auxerre," art. 6.
12.  By this horrible law, the people are bound to grind their corn at the mill of the seigneur only; to press their grapes at his press only; and to bake their bread in his oven; by which means the bread is often spoiled, and more especially wine, since in Champagne those grapes which, pressed immediately, would make white wine, will, by waiting for the press, which often happens, make red wine only.
Whilst the guest of a Vendean gentleman in 1876, at Montaign (Vendée), I saw one of these seigneurial mills.—ED.
13.  "Tiers Etat de Rennes," p. 159.
14.  "Rennes," p. 57.
15.  Chevauchés, obligation substituted for the corvée during royal progresses.
16.  See, concerning the horrible privilege of la Marquette, M. Henri Martin's "Histoire de la France," vol. 5, éclaircissemens. The right alluded to by Arthur Young had existed therefore in other parts of France.—ED.
17.  This is a curious article; when the lady of the seigneur lies in, the people are obliged to beat the waters in marshy districts, to keep the frogs silent, that she may not be disturbed; this duty, a very oppressive one, is commuted into a pecuniary fine.
18.  Bardage, a kind of turnpike duty.
19.  Seigneurial tax upon fires.
20.  Seigneurial right of selling wine exclusively in his parish.
21.  Vingtaine, seigneurial right to the twentieth of produce. See De Tocqueville's Ancien Régime. Appendix for Feudal Rights.
22.  Bordelage, seigneurial right of the Nivernais, a kind of legacy duty.
23.  Seigneurial tax upon each mine or half sétier of corn (Littré).
24.  "Resumé des cahiers," tom. iii. pp. 316, 317.
25.  Compare this passage with Carlyle's, book i. chap. iii. "Such are the shepherds of the people," &c.—ED.
26.  Many opposing voices have been raised; but so little to their credit, that I leave the passage as it was written long ago. The abuses that are rooted in all the old governments of Europe, give such numbers of men a direct interest in supporting, cherishing, and defending abuses, that no wonder advocates for tyranny, of every species, are found in every country, and almost in every company. What a mass of people, in every part of England, are some way or other interested in the present representation of the people, tythes, charters, corporations, monopolies, and taxation! and not merely to the things themselves, but to all the abuses attending them; and how many are there who derive their profit or their consideration in life, not merely from such institutions, but from the evils they engender! The great mass of the people, however, is free from such influence, and will be enlightened by degrees; assuredly they will find out, in every country of Europe, that by combinations, on the principles of liberty and property, aimed equally against regal, aristocratical, and mobbish tyranny, they will be able to resist successfully, that variety of combination, which, on principles of plunder and despotism, is every where at work to enslave them.
27.  It is to be observed, that the orders of knighthood were at first preserved; when the National Assembly, with a forbearance that did them honour, refused to abolish those orders, because personal, of merit, and not hereditary, they were guilty of one gross error. They ought immediately to have addressed the King, to institute a new order of knighthood—KNIGHTS OF THE PLOUGH. There are doubtless little souls that will smile at this, and think a thistle, a garter, or an eagle more significant, and more honourable; I say nothing of orders, that exceed common sense and common chronology, such as St. Esprit, St. Andrew, and St. Patrick, leaving them to such as venerate most what they least understand. But that prince, who should first institute this order of rural merit, will reap no vulgar honour: Leopold, whose twenty years, of steady and well earned Tuscan fame gives him a good right to do it with propriety, might, as Emperor, institute it with most effect. In him, such an action would have in it nothing of affectation. But I had rather THE PLOUGH had thus been honoured by a free assembly. It would have been a trait, that marked the philosophy of a new age, and a new system.
28.  "Evreux," p. 32.—"Bourbonnois," p. 14.—"Artois," p. 22.—"Bazas," p. 8.—"Nivernois," p. 7.—"Poitou," p. 13.—"Saintonge," p. 5.—"Orleans," p. 19.—"Chaumont," p. 7.
29.  "Vermandois," p. 41.—"Quesnoy," p. 19.—"Sens," p. 25.—"Evreux," p. 36.—"Sézanne," p. 17.—"Bar sur Seine," p. 6.—"Beauvais," p. 13.—"Bugey," p. 34.—"Clermont Ferand," p. 11.
30.  "Limoges," p. 36.
31.  "Cambray," p. 19.—"Pont à Mousson," p. 38.
32.  "Lyon," p. 13.—"Touraine," p. 32.—"Angoumois," p. 13.—"Auxerre," p. 13. The author of the "Historical Sketch of the French Revolution," 8vo. 1792, says, p. 68, "the worst enemies of nobility have not yet brought to light any cahier, in which the nobles insisted on their exclusive right to military preferments."—In the same page, this gentleman says, it is impossible for any Englishman to study four or five hundred cahiers. It is evident, however, from this mistake, how necessary it is to examine them before writing on the revolution.
33.  "Vermandois," p. 23.—"Chalons-sur-Marne," p. 6.—"Gien," p. 9.
34.  "Crépy," p. 10.
35.  "St. Quintin," p. 9.
36.  "De l'Autorité de Montesquieu dans la revolution presente," 8vo. 1789, p. 61.
37.  "Etats Géneraux convoqués, par Louis XVI." par M. Target, prem. suite, p. 7.
38.  "Qu'est ce-que le Tiers Etat," 3d edit. par M. l'Abbé Sieyès. 8vo. p. 51.
39.  "Bibliothèque de l'homme publique," par M. Condorcet, &c. tom, iii.
40.  Nothing appears so scandalous to all the clergy of Europe, as their brethren in England dancing at public assemblies; and a bishop's wife engaged in the same amusement, seems to them as preposterous as a bishop, in his lawn sleeves, following the same diversion would to us. Probably both are wrong.
41.  "Saintonge," p. 24.—"Limoges," p. 6.
42.  "Lyon," p. 13.—"Dourdon" (Seine and Oise), p. 5.
43.  "Saintonge," p. 26.—"Montargis," p. 10.
44.  "Limoges," p. 22.
45.  "Troyes," p. 11.
46.  "Metz," p. 11.
47.  "Rouen," p. 24.
47 "Laon," p. 11.—"Dourdon," p. 17.
48.  "Rapport du 6 Decembre 1790, sur les moyens de pourvoir aux depenses pour 1791," p. 4.
49.  Since this was written, assignats fell in December 1791, and January 1792, to 34 to 38 per cent. paid in silver, and 42 to 50 paid in gold, arising from great emissions; from the quantity of private paper issued; from forged ones being common, and from the prospect of a war.
50.  It is an error in France to suppose, that the revenue of the church is small in England. The Royal Society of Agriculture at Paris states that revenue at 210,000l.; it cannot be stated at less than five millions sterling. "Mem. presenté par la S. R. d'Ag. a l'Assemblée Nationale," 1789, p. 52.—One of the greatest and wisest men we have in England, persists in asserting it to be much less than two millions. From very numerous inquiries, which I am still pursuing, I have reason to believe this opinion to be founded on insufficient data.
51.  It ought not to be allowed even tolerable, for this plain reason, such public extravagance engenders taxes to an amount that will sooner or later force the people into resistance, which is always the destruction of a constitution; and surely that must be admitted bad, which carries to the most careless eye the seeds of its own destruction. Two hundred and forty millions of public debt in a century, is in a ratio impossible to be supported; and therefore evidently ruinous.
52.  "The direct power of the king of England," says Mr. Burke, "is considerable. His indirect is great indeed. When was it that a king of England wanted wherewithal to make him respected, courted, or perhaps even feared in every state in Europe?" It is in such passages as these, that this elegant writer lays himself open to the attacks, formidable, because just, of men who have not an hundredth part of his talents. Who questions, or can question, the power of a prince that in less than a century has expended above 1000 millions, and involved his people in a debt of 240! The point in debate is not the existence of power, but its excess. What is the constitution that generates or allows of such expences? The very mischief complained of is here wrought into a merit, and brought in argument to prove that poison is salutary.
53.  This debt, and our enormous taxation, are the best answer the National Assembly gives to those who would have had the English government, with all its faults on its head, adopted in France; nor was it without reason said by a popular writer, that a government, formed like the English, obtains more revenue than it could do, either by direct despotism, or in a full state of freedom.
54.  Dr. Priestly's "Lectures on Hist." 4to. 1788, p. 917.
55.  The representation of mere population is as gross a violation of sense, reason, and theory, as it is found pernicious in practice; it gives to ignorance to govern knowledge; to uncultivated intellect the lead of intelligence; to savage force the guide of law and justice; and to folly the governance of wisdom. Knowledge, intelligence, information, learning, and wisdom ought to govern nations; and these are all found to reside most in the middle classes of mankind; weakened by the habits and prejudices of the great, and stifled by the ignorance of the vulgar.
56.  Those who have not attended much to French affairs, might easily mistake the representation of territory and contribution in the French constitution, as something similar to what I contend for—but nothing is more remote; the number chosen is of little consequence, while persons without property are the electors. Yet Mr. Christie says, vol. i. p. 196, that property is a base on which representation ought to be founded; and it is plain he thinks that property is represented, though the representatives of the property are elected by men that do not possess a shilling! It is not that the proprietors of property should have voices in the election proportioned to their property, but that men who have a direct interest in the plunder or division of property should be kept at a distance from power. Here lies the great difficulty of modern legislation, to secure property, and at the same time secure freedom to those that have no property. In England there is much of this effected for the small portion of every man's income that is left to him after public plunder is satiated (the poor, the parson, and the king take 50 to 60 per cent. of every man's rent)—but the rest is secure. In America the poor, the parson, and the king take nothing (or next to nothing), and the whole is secure. In France ALL seems to be at the mercy of the populace.
57.  The exaction of tythes is so absurd and tyrannical an attack on the property of mankind, that it is almost impossible for them to continue in any country in the world half a century longer. To pay a man by force 1000l. a year, for doing by deputy what would be much better done for 100l. is too gross an imposition to be endured. To levy that 1000l. in the most pernicious method that can wound both property and liberty, are circumstances congenial to the tenth century, but not to the eighteenth. Italy, France, and America have set noble examples for the imitation of mankind; and those countries that do not follow them, will soon be as inferior in cultivation as they are in policy.
58.  The late riots at Birmingham [riots against persons commemorating the French Revolution, July, 1791.—ED.] ought to convince every man, who looks to the preservation of peace, that a militia of property is absolutely necessary; had it existed at that town, no such infamous transactions could have taken place, to the disgrace of the age and nation. Those riots may convince us how insecure our property really is in England, and how very imperfect that POLITICAL SYSTEM, which could, twice in twelve years, see two of the greatest towns in England at the mercy of a vile mob. The military must, in relation to the greater part of the kingdom, be always at a distance; but a militia is on the spot, and easy to be collected, by previous regulations, at a moment's warning.
59.  The class of writers who wish to spread the taste of revolutions, and make them every where the order of the day, affect to confound the governments of France and America, as if established on the same principles; if so, it is a remarkable fact that the result should, to appearance, turn out so differently: but a little examination will convince us, that there is scarcely any thing in common between those governments, except the general principle of being free. In France, the populace are electors, and to so low a degree that the exclusions are of little account; and the qualifications for a seat in the provincial assemblies, and in the national one, are so low that the whole chain may be completed, from the first elector to the legislator, without a single link of what merits the name of property. The very reverse is the case in America, there is not a single state in which voters must not have a qualification of property: in Massachussets and New Hampshire, a freehold of 3l. a year, or other estate of 60l. value: Connecticut is a country of substantial freeholders, and the old government remains: In New York, electors of the senate must have a property of 100l. free from debts; and those of the assembly freeholds of 40s. a year, rated and paying taxes: in Pensylvania, payment of taxes is necessary: in Maryland, the possession of 50 acres of land, or other estate worth 30l.: in Virginia, 25 cultivated acres, with a house on it: in North Carolina, for the senate 50 acres, and for the assembly payment of taxes: and in all the states there are qualifications much more considerable, necessary for being eligible to be elected. In general it should be remembered, that taxes being so very few, the qualification of paying them excludes vastly more voters than a similar regulation in Europe. In constituting the legislatures also, the states all have two houses, except Pensylvania. And Congress itself meets in the same form. Thus a ready explanation is found of that order and regularity, and security of property, which strikes every eye in America; a contrast to the spectacle which France has exhibited, where confusion of every sort has operated, in which property is very far from safe; in which the populace legislate and then execute, not laws of their representatives, but of their own ambulatory wills; in which, at this moment (March 1792), they are a scene of anarchy, with every sign of a civil war commencing. These two great experiments, as far as they have gone, ought to pour conviction in every mind, that order and property never can be safe if the right of election is personal, instead of being attached to property: and whenever propositions for the reformation of our representation shall be seriously considered, which is certainly necessary, nothing ought to be in contemplation but taking power from the crown and the aristocracy—not to give it to the mob, but to the middle classes of moderate fortune. The proprietor of an estate of 50l. a year is as much interested, in the preservation of order and of property, as the possessor of fifty thousand; but the people without property have a direct and positive interest in public confusion, and the consequent division of that property, of which they are destitute. Hence the necessity, a pressing one in the present moment, of a militia rank and file, of property; the essential counterpoise to assemblies in ale-house kitchens, clubbing their pence to have the Rights of Man read to them, by which should be understood (in Europe, not in America) the RIGHT TO PLUNDER. Let the state of France at present be coolly considered, and it will be found to originate absolutely in population, without property being represented: it exhibits scenes such as can never take place in America. See the National Assembly of a great empire, at the crisis of its fate, listening to the harrangues of the Paris populace, the female populace of St. Antoine, and the president formally answering and flattering them! Will such spectacles ever be seen in the American Congress? Can that be a well constituted government, in which the most precious moments are so consumed? The place of assembling (Paris) is alone sufficient to endanger the constitution.
60.  "Nob. Auxois," p. 23. "Artois," p. 13. "T. Etat de Peronne," p. 15. "Nob. Dauphiné" p. 119.
61.  "Nob. Touraine," p. 4. "Nob. Senlis," p. 46. "Nob. Pays de Labour" (Labourd, Pyrenees, ED.), p. 3. "Nob. Quesnoy," p. 6. "Nob. Sens," p. 3. "Nob. Thimerais," p. 3. "Clergé du Bourbonnois," p. 6. "Clergé du Bas Limosin," p. 10.
62.  Too numerous to quote, of both Nobility and Tiers.
63.  Many; Nobility as well as Tiers.
64.  "Nob. Sezanne," p. 14. "T. Etat Metz," p. 42. "T. Etat de Auvergne," p. 9. "T. Etat de Riom," p. 23.
65.  "Nob. Nivernois," p. 25.
66.  "Nob. Bas Limosin," p. 12.
67.  "T. Etat du Haut Vivarais," p. 18. "Nob. Rheims," p. 16. "Nob. Auxerre," p. 41.
68.  "Nob. Toulon," p. 18.
69.  Too many to quote.
70.  "Nob. Nomery en Loraine," p. 10.
71.  "Nob. Mantes & Meulan," p. 16. "Provins & Montereaux," art. 1. "Rennes," art. 19.
72.  "Nob. Paris," p. 14.
73.  "Nob. Vitry le François," MS. "Nob. Lyon," p. 16. "Nob. Bugey," p. 28. "Nob. Paris," p. 22.
74.  "Nob. Ponthieu," p. 32. "Nob. Chartres," p. 19. "Nob. Auxerre," art. 74.
75.  "Nob. Bugey," p. 11. "Nob. Montargis," p. 18. "Nob. Paris," 16. "Nob. Bourbonnois," p. 12. "Nob. Nancy," p. 23. "Nob. Angoumois," p. 20. "Nob. Pays de Labour," fol. 9.
76.  "Nob. Beauvois," p. 18. "Nob. Troyes," p. 25.
77.  "Nob. Limoges," p. 31.
78.  "T. Etat de Lyon," p. 7. "Nismes," p. 13. "Cotentin," art. 7.
79.  "T. Etat Rennes," art. 15.
80.  "T. Etat Nismes," p. 11.
81.  "T. Etat Pont à Mousson," p. 17. Mr. Burke says, "When the several orders, in their several bailliages, had met in the year 1789, to chuse and instruct their representatives, they were the people of France; whilst they were in that state, in no one of their instructions did they charge, or even hint at any of those things which have drawn upon the usurping assembly the detestation of the rational part of mankind."
82.  It is so because the inequality remains as great as if titles had remained, but built on its worst basis, wealth. The nobility were bad, but not so bad as Mr. Christie makes them; they did not wait till the Etats Generaux before they agreed to renounce their pecuniary privileges, "Letters on the Revolution of France," vol. i. p. 74. The first meeting of the states was May 5, 1789; but the nobility assembled at the Louvre, Dec. 20, 1788, addressed the king, declaring that intention.
83.  After all that has been said of late years, on the subject of constitutions and governments by various writers in England, but more especially in France, one circumstance must strike any attentive reader; it is, that none of the writers who have pushed the most forward in favour of new systems, have said any thing to convince the unprejudiced part of mankind, that experiment is not as necessary a means of knowledge in relation to government, as in agriculture, or any other branch of natural philosophy. Much has been said in favour of the American government, and I believe with perfect justice, reasoning as far as the experiment extends; but it is fair to consider it as an imperfect experiment, extending no further than the energy of personal virtue, seconded by the moderation attendant on a circulation not remarkably active. We learn, by Mr. Payne, that General Washington accepted no salary as commander of their troops, nor any as president of their legislature—an instance that does honour to their government, their country, and to human nature; but it may be doubted, whether any such instances will occur two hundred years hence? The exports of the United States now amount to 20 millions of dollars; when they amount to 500 millions, when great wealth, vast cities, a rapid circulation, and, by consequence, immense private fortunes are formed, will such spectacles be found? Will their government then be as faultless as it appears at present? It may, Probably it will still be found excellent; but we have no convictions, no proof; it is in the womb of time—THE EXPERIMENT IS NOT MADE. Such remarks, however, ought always to be accompanied with the admission, that the British government has been experimented.—With what result?—Let a debt of 240 millions—let seven wars—let Bengal and Gibraltar—let 30 millions sterling of national burthens, taxes, rates, tythes, and monopolies—let these answer.
84.  The gross abuse which has been thrown on the French nation, and particularly on their assemblies, in certain pamphlets, and without interruption, in several of our newspapers, ought to be deprecated by every man who feels for the future interests of this country. It is in some instances carried to so scandalous an excess, that we must necessarily give extreme disgust to thousands of people, who may hereafter have an ample opportunity to vote and act under the influence of impressions unfavourable towards a country, that, unprovoked, has loaded them with so much contumely; for a nation groaning under a debt of 240 millions, that deadens the very idea of future energy, this seems, to use the mildest language, to be at least very imprudent.
85.  Whether nominally, or really, is not of consequence, if effective qualifications of property be not, at every step, the guard, as in the American constitutions.
86.  "Aussitot que les opérations preliminaires seront termineés les officiers municipaux et les commissaires adjoints feront, en leur âme et conscience l'evaluation du revenue net des differentes propriétes foncières de la communante section par section." "Journal des Etats Gen." tom. xvi. p. 510.
87.  Exports 1757, 4,758,095l. In 1767, 4,277,462l. In 1777, 3,743,537l. In 1787, 3,687,795l. See this subject fully examined, "Annals of Agriculture," vol. x. p. 235.
88.  But this land-tax is variable, and therefore impossible to estimate accurately; if you remain no better farmers than your French neighbours, it is so much; but if you improve, you are raised, and they are sunk; all that has, and can be said against tythes, bears with equal force against such a tax. And though this imposition cannot go by the present law beyond 4s. in the pound, it would be very easy to shew, by a plain calculation, that 4s. in the pound, rising with improvement, is a tax impossible to be borne by one who improves; and consequently, that it is a direct tax on improvement; and it is a tax in the very worst form, since the power to lay and inforce it, is not in the government of the kingdom, but in the municipal government of the parish. Your neighbour, with whom you may be on ill terms, has the power to tax you; no such private heart-burnings and tyranny are found in excises.
89.  To have avoided land-taxes, might very easily have been made a most popular measure, in a kingdom so divided into little properties as France is. No tax is so heavy upon a small proprietor; and the œconomistes might have foreseen what has happened, that such little democratic owners would not pay the tax; but taxes on consumption, laid as in England, and not in the infamous methods of the old government of France, would have been paid by them in a light proportion, without knowing it; but the œconomistes, to be consistent with their old pernicious doctrines, took every step to make all, except land-taxes, unpopular; and the people were ignorant enough to be deceived into the opinion, that it was better to pay a tax on the bread put into their children's mouths—and, what is worse, on the land which ought, but does not produce that bread, than to pay an excise on tobacco and salt, better to pay a tax which is demanded equally, whether they have or have not the money to pay it, than a duty which, mingled with the price of a luxury, is paid in the easiest mode, and at the most convenient moment. In the writings of the œconomistes, you hear of a free corn trade, and free export of every thing being the recompence for a land-tax; but see their actions in power—they impose the burthen, and forget the recompence!