Arthur Young's Travels in France During the Years 1787, 1788, 1789
By Arthur Young
Arthur Young (1741-1820) was an 18th century English writer who is best known for the detailed accounts he published of his “travels” in England, Wales, Ireland and France on the eve of the revolution. After he inherited his father’s family estate in 1759 he began experimenting with agricultural improvements in order to maximise output. Although he was not always successful in achieving his goals, his writings contained very detailed observations and analysis of agricultural matters and were extremely popular. He began with
A Course of Experimental Agriculture (1770) based upon his personal experiences and then traveled widely, commenting on the state of agriculture in Britain and France. The following books were the result:
A Six Weeks’ Tour through the Southern Counties of England and Wales (1768),
A Six Months’ Tour through the North of England (1770),
Farmer’s Tour through the East of England (1771),
A Tour in Ireland 1776-1779 (1780), and
Travels in France during the Years 1787, 1788, 1789 (1792). He also published a number of reference works on agriculture and farming which went through many editions and were translated into several European languages. These included the
Political Arithmetic (1774), and the 45 volume
Annals of Agriculture (1784-). Upon his return from France he was appointed to the position of secretary of the Board of Agriculture in the British government in which capacity he organized the collection and preparation of agricultural surveys of the English counties. Later in life he suffered from blindness brought on by severe cataracts and a failed operation to cure it.Young was a pioneer in the detailed observation of economic conditions in the countryside and the collection of statistical data relating to agriculture. Although modern historians dispute the reliability of his data and the conclusions he sometimes draws from them they recognise the important work he did in beginning the modern collection and analysis of this material. Young is also noteworthy for the sheer luck of being in France on the eve of and during the early part of the French Revolution. He was able to provide in his dairies close observations of the social, political and economic conditions of the French countryside as it was convulsed by violent revolution. This makes his
Travels in France (1792) particularly valuable to historians.Politically, Young was a liberal reformer. He urged the repeal of the penal laws which discriminated against Catholics, he condemned the British regulation of Irish commerce, and criticised the Irish Parliament’s industrial policy of prohibitions and bounties. He was a staunch supporter of property rights in agriculture as a means of reducing poverty. Some of his more famous sayings were “the magic of property turns sand into gold” and “give a man the secure possession of a bleak rock, and he will turn it into a garden; give him a nine years’ lease of a garden, and he will convert it into a desert.”Betham-Edwards (
Miss Matilda Betham-Edwards, 1836-1919) published editions of
Young’s Travels in France in 1889 (listed as the 2nd ed.), 1890 (3rd ed.), 1892 (4th corrected ed.).
Dr. David M. Hart
BibliographyAllen, Robert C. and Cormac Ó Gráda, “On the Road Again with Arthur Young: English, Irish, and French Agriculture during the Industrial Revolution,”
Journal of Economic History 48 (1988): 93-116.Brunt Liam, “Rehabilitating Arthur Young,”
Economic History Review 56 (2003): 265-99.Gazley, John G.,
The Life of Arthur Young, 1741-1820. Philadelphia Philosophical Society, 1973.Mingay, G.E. (ed.).
Arthur Young and His Times. London: Macmillan, 1975.Stead, David R. “Arthur Young”. EH.net Encyclopedia
Matilda Betham-Edwards, ed.
First Pub. Date
London: George Bell and Sons
The text of this edition is in the public domain. Picture of Arthur Young: frontispiece, courtesy Liberty Fund, Inc.
by Matilda Betham-Edwards
A Six Weeks’ Tour through the Southern Counties of England and Wales. London, 1768. 8vo. Second edition, enlarged, 1769. 8vo. Third edition, 1772. 8vo.
A Six Months’ Tour through the North of England, containing an account of the present state of Agriculture, Manufactures, and Population in several counties of this kingdom. London, 1771. 8vo. 4 vols. Plates.
The Farmer’s Tour through the East of England; being a Register of a Journey through various counties, to inquire into the state of Agriculture, Manufactures, and Population. London, 1770 71. 8vo. 4 vols.
Tour in Ireland; with general observations on the present state of that kingdom in 1776-7-8. Dublin, 1780. 8vo. 2 vols. London, 1780. 8vo. 2 vols.
Travels during the years 1787, 1788, 1789, and 1790, undertaken more particularly with a view of ascertaining the Cultivation, Wealth, Resources, and National Prosperity of the Kingdom of France. Bury St. Edmunds, 1794. 4to. 2 vols. Vol. I. is a second edition, the first edition having been published in 1792. Reprinted, Dublin, 1798. 8vo. 2 vols.
The Farmer’s Letters to the People of England; containing the sentiments of a practical Husbandman on the present condition of Husbandry, &c. London, 1768, 1771. 8vo. 2 vols.
The Farmer’s Guide in Hiring and Stocking Farms. London, 1770. 8vo. 2 vols. With plans.
Rural Economy, or Essays on the Practical Part of Husbandry. London, 1770. 8vo.
Political Arithmetic, or Observations on the present state of Great Britain, and the principles of her policy in the Encouragement of Agriculture. London, 1774.
The Farmer’s Kalendar. London, 1800. 8vo. 1808. 8vo. 25th edition. Edited and extended by J. C. Morton. London, Routledge, 1862, bds., 10
Essays on Manures. London, 1804. 8vo.
Advantages which have resulted from the Board of Agriculture. London, 1809. 8vo.
Inquiry into the progressive value of money, as marked by the price of Agricultural Products. London, 1812.
Agricultural Surveys. Published by the Board of Agriculture.
Essex. 2 vols. 1807. 8vo.
Hertfordshire. 1804. 8vo.
Lincolnshire. 1798. 8vo.
Norfolk. 1804. 8vo.
Oxfordshire. 1809 or 1813. 8vo.
Suffolk. 1794. 4to. 1798, 1804. 8vo.
Sussex. 1703, 1808. 4to.
Baxteriana; a selection from the works of Richard Baxter. 1815.
Oweniana. Select Passages from the Writings of John Owen, D.D. 1817.
Tracts and Pamphlets (in British Museum) as follows:—
On the Husbandry of three celebrated Farmers, Bakewell, Arbuthnot, and Duckett. 1811.
The Expediency of a Free Exportation of Corn at this time. 1770.
An Idea of the Present State of France. 1798.
Letter concerning the Present State of France. 1769.
Observations on the Waste Lands of Great Britain. 1773.
Proposals to the Legislature for numbering the People. 1771.
The question of Wool truly stated. 1788.
On the Size of Farms (contributed to Hunter’s “Georgical Essays”). 1803.
On Summer Fallowing, in Hunter’s “Georgical Essays.” 1803.
Letters on Agriculture to General Washington. 1813.
The Constitution safe without Reform. 1795.
An Inquiry into the state of the public mind among the Lower Classes. 1798.
An Essay on the management of Hogs. 1769.
The Example of France. 1793. (Numerous editions.)
Peace and Reform. 1799.
An Inquiry into the propriety of applying Wastes to the better maintenance of the Poor. 1801.
et seq., “Les Serfs transformés en roturiers,” and vol. vii., p. 190, “Etats Généraux.”
lunetterie resolves itself into a scientific study of noses!—a long-nosed nation requiring one kind of spectacles, a short-nosed people an other, and so on. A pair of spectacles can be made here for three half-pence.
Another interesting fact recorded is the item of expenditure. The first journey, lasting just upon six months, cost £118 15
d. The second journey, of eighty-eight days, cost just £61, or at the rate of fourteen shillings a day, about the sum an economical traveller would spend in France at the present time, obtaining naturally much more comfort for his money.
Readers of Arthur Young will do well to consult the reports of the Administration of Agriculture in France, 1785-7, recently published with notes by MM. Pigeonneau and De Foville, whilst the work of the latter on the subdivision of land, “Le Morcellement,” Paris, 1885, is a mine of information conveyed in a most interesting manner.
Chapter 1, Author’s Introduction