In July 1994, Jonathan Gruber, then an assistant professor of economics at MIT, and I, then the John M. Olin Fellow at Washington University’s Center for the Study of American Business, testified on the economic effects of government mandates on employers to provide health insurance for their employees. The late Senator Edward Kennedy was the committee chair.

Kennedy’s brief introduction of the witnesses starts at 2:35:54. Gruber’s testimony starts at 2:37:20 and goes to 2:42:58. My testimony starts at 2:43:02 and goes to 2:49:22.

Here’s the video.

Here’s an article I wrote about it a few months later.