The Roots of the Freddie-Fannie Bailout
By Arnold Kling
[Secretary of Housing Andrew] Cuomo’s predecessor, Henry Cisneros [moved] the GSEs toward a requirement that 42 percent of their mortgages serve low- and moderate-income families. Cuomo raised that number to 50 percent and dramatically hiked GSE mandates to buy mortgages in underserved neighborhoods and for the “very-low-income.” Part of the pitch was racial, with Cuomo contending that Fannie and Freddie weren’t granting mortgages to minorities at the same rate as the private market. William Apgar, Cuomo’s top aide, told The Washington Post: “We believe that there are a lot of loans to black Americans that could be safely purchased by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac if these companies were more flexible.”
While many saw this demand for increasingly “flexible” loan terms and standards as a positive step for low-income and minority families, others warned that they could have potentially dangerous consequences. Franklin Raines, the Fannie chairman and first black CEO of a Fortune 500 company, warned that Cuomo’s rules were moving Fannie into risky territory: “We have not been a major presence in the subprime market,” he said, “but you can bet that under these goals, we will be.” Fannie’s chief financial officer, Timothy Howard, said that “making loans to people with less-than-perfect credit” is “something we should do.” Cuomo wasn’t shy about embracing subprime mortgages as a possible consequence of his goals. “GSE presence in the subprime market could be of significant benefit to lower-income families, minorities, and families living in underserved areas,” his report on the new goals noted.
Read the whole thing. Thanks to Cato’s David Boaz for emailing me the link.
The conventional wisdom is that government regulators were too passive and subservient to free-market ideology while the housing bubble was inflating and the subprime mortgage fad was spreading. The Voice article tells a different story, in which government officials were anything but passive, and mortgage markets were not exactly free from tampering.