Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States
By John J. Lalor
NEITHER American nor English literature has hitherto possessed a Cyclopædia of Political Science and Political Economy. The want of a work of reference on these important branches of knowledge has long been felt, especially by lawyers, journalists, members of our state and national legislatures, and the large and intelligent class of capitalists and business men who give serious thought to the political and social questions of the day. The present work, which will be completed in three volumes, is the first to supply that want. It is also the first Political History of the United States in encyclopædic form—the first to which the reader can refer for an account of the important events or facts in our political history, as he would to a dictionary for the precise meaning of a word. The French, the Germans and even the Italians are richer in works of reference on political science and political economy than the Americans or the English. The Germans have Rotteck and Welcker’s
Staatslexikon, and Bluntschli and Brater’s
Staatswörterbuch; the French, Block’s
Dictionnaire Général de la Politique, and the celebrated
Dictionnaire de l’Economie Politique, edited by Guillaumin and Coquelin.The “Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and of the Political History of the United States” is intended to be to the American and English reader what the above-named works are to French and German students of political science and political economy. The articles by foreigners in our work are largely translations from the
Dictionnaire de l’Economie Politique, the
Dictionnaire Général de la Politique, the
Staatswörterbuch, and original articles by Mr. T. E. Cliffe Leslie, the eminent English economist; while the American articles are by the best American and Canadian writers on political economy and political science. The task of writing the articles on the political history of the United States was confided to one person, Mr. Alexander Johnston, of Norwalk, Connecticut, thoroughness, conciseness and the absence of repetition and of redundancy being thus secured…. [From the Preface]
First Pub. Date
New York: Maynard, Merrill, and Co.
Originally printed in 3 volumes. Includes articles by Frédéric Bastiat, Gustave de Molinari, Henry George, J. B. Say, Francis A. Walker, and more.
The text of this edition is in the public domain.
- V.1, Entry 1, ABDICATION
- V.1, Entry 2, ABOLITION AND ABOLITIONISTS
- V.1, Entry 3, ABSENTEEISM
- V.1, Entry 4, ABSOLUTE POWER
- V.1, Entry 5, ABSOLUTISM
- V.1, Entry 6, ABSTENTION
- V.1, Entry 7, ABUSES IN POLITICS
- V.1, Entry 8, ABYSSINIA
- V.1, Entry 9, ACADEMIES
- V.1, Entry 10, ACADEMIES
- V.1, Entry 11, ACCLAMATION
- V.1, Entry 12, ACCUMULATION OF WEALTH
- V.1, Entry 13, ACT
- V.1, Entry 14, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 15, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 16, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 17, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 18, ADJOURNMENT
- V.1, Entry 19, ADMINISTRATION
- V.1, Entry 20, ADMINISTRATIONS
- V.1, Entry 21, AFRICA
- V.1, Entry 22, AGE
- V.1, Entry 23, AGENT
- V.1, Entry 24, AGENTS
- V.1, Entry 25, AGIO
- V.1, Entry 26, AGIOTAGE
- V.1, Entry 27, AGRICULTURE
- V.1, Entry 28, ALABAMA
- V.1, Entry 29, ALABAMA CLAIMS
- V.1, Entry 30, ALASKA
- V.1, Entry 31, ALBANY PLAN OF UNION
- V.1, Entry 32, ALBANY REGENCY
- V.1, Entry 33, ALCALDE
- V.1, Entry 34, ALCOHOL
- V.1, Entry 35, ALGERIA
- V.1, Entry 36, ALGERINE WAR
- V.1, Entry 37, ALIEN AND SEDITION LAWS
- V.1, Entry 38, ALIENS
- V.1, Entry 39, ALLEGIANCE
- V.1, Entry 40, ALLEGIANCE
- V.1, Entry 41, ALLIANCE
- V.1, Entry 42, ALLIANCE
- V.1, Entry 43, ALLOYAGE
- V.1, Entry 44, ALMANACH DE GOTHA
- V.1, Entry 45, ALSACE-LORRAINE
- V.1, Entry 46, AMBASSADOR
- V.1, Entry 47, AMBITION
- V.1, Entry 48, AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
- V.1, Entry 49, AMERICA
- V.1, Entry 50, AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE
- V.1, Entry 51, AMERICAN PARTY
- V.1, Entry 52, AMERICAN WHIGS
- V.1, Entry 53, AMES
- V.1, Entry 54, AMISTAD CASE
- V.1, Entry 55, AMNESTY
- V.1, Entry 56, AMNESTY
- V.1, Entry 57, ANAM
- V.1, Entry 58, ANARCHY
- V.1, Entry 59, ANCIEN RÉGIME
- V.1, Entry 60, ANDORRA
- V.1, Entry 61, ANHALT
- V.1, Entry 62, ANNEXATION
- V.1, Entry 63, ANNEXATIONS
- V.1, Entry 64, ANTI-FEDERAL PARTY
- V.1, Entry 65, ANTI-MASONRY
- V.1, Entry 66, ANTI-NEBRASKA MEN
- V.1, Entry 67, ANTI-RENTERS
- V.1, Entry 68, ANTI-SLAVERY.
- V.1, Entry 69, APPORTIONMENT
- V.1, Entry 70, APPROPRIATION.
- V.1, Entry 71, APPROPRIATIONS
- V.1, Entry 72, ARBITRAGE
- V.1, Entry 73, ARBITRARY ARRESTS
- V.1, Entry 74, ARBITRARY POWER
- V.1, Entry 75, ARBITRATION
- V.1, Entry 76, ARCHONS
- V.1, Entry 77, AREOPAGUS.
- V.1, Entry 78, ARGENTINE CONFEDERATION
- V.1, Entry 79, ARISTOCRACY.
- V.1, Entry 80, ARISTOCRATIC AND DEMOCRATIC IDEAS.
- V.1, Entry 81, ARITHMETIC
- V.1, Entry 82, ARIZONA
- V.1, Entry 83, ARKANSAS
- V.1, Entry 84, ARMISTICE
- V.1, Entry 85, ARMIES
- V.1, Entry 86, ARMY
- V.1, Entry 87, ARTHUR
- V.1, Entry 88, ARTISANS
- V.1, Entry 89, ARYAN RACES.
- V.1, Entry 90, ASIA
- V.1, Entry 91, ASSEMBLY (IN U. S. HISTORY)
- V.1, Entry 92, ASSESSMENTS
- V.1, Entry 93, ASSIGNATS
- V.1, Entry 94, ASSOCIATION AND ASSOCIATIONS
- V.1, Entry 95, ASYLUM
- V.1, Entry 96, ATELIERS NATIONAUX
- V.1, Entry 97, ATTAINDER
- V.1, Entry 98, ATTORNEYS GENERAL
- V.1, Entry 99, AUSTRALIA
- V.1, Entry 100, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
- V.1, Entry 101, AUTHORITY
- V.1, Entry 102, AUTHORS
- V.1, Entry 103, AUTOCRAT
- V.1, Entry 104, AUTONOMY.
- V.1, Entry 105, AYES AND NOES
- V.1, Entry 106, BADEN
- V.1, Entry 107, BALANCE OF POWER
- V.1, Entry 108, BALANCE OF TRADE
- V.1, Entry 109, BALLOT
- V.1, Entry 110, BANK CONTROVERSIES
- V.1, Entry 111, BANKING
- V.1, Entry 112, BANK NOTES.
- V.1, Entry 113, BANKRUPTCY.
- V.1, Entry 114, BANKRUPTCY, National.
- V.1, Entry 115, BANKS.
- V.1, Entry 116, BANKS, Functions of.
- V.1, Entry 117, BANKS OF ISSUE
- V.1, Entry 118, BANKS, Advantages of Savings.
- V.1, Entry 119, BANKS, History and Management of Savings,
- V.1, Entry 120, BAR
- V.1, Entry 121, BARNBURNERS
- V.1, Entry 122, BARRICADE
- V.1, Entry 123, BARTER.
- V.1, Entry 124, BASTILLE
- V.1, Entry 125, BAVARIA
- V.1, Entry 126, BELGIUM
- V.1, Entry 127, BELL
- V.1, Entry 128, BELLIGERENTS
- V.1, Entry 129, BENTON
- V.1, Entry 130, BERLIN DECREE
- V.1, Entry 131, BILL
- V.1, Entry 132, BILL OF EXCHANGE
- V.1, Entry 133, BILL OF RIGHTS
- V.1, Entry 134, BILLION
- V.1, Entry 135, BILLS
- V.1, Entry 136, BI-METALLISM.
- V.1, Entry 137, BIRNEY
- V.1, Entry 138, BLACK COCKADE
- V.1, Entry 139, BLACK CODE.
- V.1, Entry 140, BLACK REPUBLICAN.
- V.1, Entry 141, BLAINE
- V.1, Entry 142, BLAIR
- V.1, Entry 143, BLOCKADE
- V.1, Entry 144, BLOODY BILL
- V.1, Entry 145, BLUE LAWS
- V.1, Entry 146, BLUE LIGHT
- V.1, Entry 147, BOARD OF TRADE.
- V.1, Entry 148, BOLIVIA
- V.1, Entry 149, BOOTY
- V.1, Entry 150, BORDER RUFFIANS
- V.1, Entry 151, BORDER STATES
- V.1, Entry 152, BOURGEOISIE
- V.1, Entry 153, BOUTWELL
- V.1, Entry 154, BRAHMANISM.
- V.1, Entry 155, BRAZIL
- V.1, Entry 156, BRECKENRIDGE
- V.1, Entry 157, BROAD SEAL WAR
- V.1, Entry 158, BROKERS
- V.1, Entry 159, BROOKS
- V.1, Entry 160, BROWN
- V.1, Entry 161, BUCHANAN
- V.1, Entry 162, BUCKSHOT WAR
- V.1, Entry 163, BUCKTAILS
- V.1, Entry 164, BUDDHISM
- V.1, Entry 165, BUDGET
- V.1, Entry 166, BULL
- V.1, Entry 167, BUNDESRATH
- V.1, Entry 168, BUREAUCRACY
- V.1, Entry 169, BURGESSES
- V.1, Entry 170, BURLINGAME
- V.1, Entry 171, BURR
- V.1, Entry 172, BUTLER, Benj. F.
- V.1, Entry 173, BUTLER, William Orlando
- V.1, Entry 174, CACHET
- V.1, Entry 175, CÆSARISM
- V.1, Entry 176, CALENDAR
- V.1, Entry 177, CALHOUN
- V.1, Entry 178, CALIFORNIA
- V.1, Entry 179, CANADA
- V.1, Entry 180, CANALS
- V.1, Entry 181, CANON LAW
- V.1, Entry 182, CAPITAL
- V.1, Entry 183, CAPITAL
- V.1, Entry 184, CAPITULATION
- V.1, Entry 185, CARICATURE
- V.1, Entry 186, CARPET BAGGERS
- V.1, Entry 187, CARTEL
- V.1, Entry 188, CASS
- V.1, Entry 189, CASUS BELLI
- V.1, Entry 190, CAUCUS
- V.1, Entry 191, CAUCUS SYSTEM
- V.1, Entry 192, CAUSE AND EFFECT IN POLITICS.
- V.1, Entry 193, CELIBACY, Clerical
- V.1, Entry 194, CELIBACY, Political Aspects of.
- V.1, Entry 195, CELTS.
- V.1, Entry 196, CENSURE.
- V.1, Entry 197, CENSURE OF MORALS.
- V.1, Entry 198, CENSURES
- V.1, Entry 199, CENSUS.
- V.1, Entry 200, CENTRALIZATION and DECENTRALIZATION.
- V.1, Entry 201, CEREMONIAL
- V.1, Entry 202, CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.
- V.1, Entry 203, CHARGÉ D'AFFAIRES.
- V.1, Entry 204, CHARITY, Private.
- V.1, Entry 205, CHARITY, Public.
- V.1, Entry 206, CHARITY, State.
- V.1, Entry 207, CHASE
- V.1, Entry 208, CHECKS AND BALANCES.
- V.1, Entry 209, CHEROKEE CASE
- V.1, Entry 210, CHESAPEAKE CASE.
- V.1, Entry 211, CHILI.
- V.1, Entry 212, CHINA
- V.1, Entry 213, CHINESE IMMIGRATION.
- V.1, Entry 214, CHIVALRY.
- V.1, Entry 215, CHRISTIANITY.
- V.1, Entry 216, CHURCH AND STATE
- V.1, Entry 217, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 218, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 219, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 220, CHURCHES AND RELIGIONS
- V.1, Entry 221, CHURCHES
- V.1, Entry 222, CINCINNATI
- V.1, Entry 223, CIPHER DISPATCHES AND DECIPHERMENT
- V.1, Entry 224, CIRCULATION OF WEALTH.
- V.1, Entry 225, CITIES
- V.1, Entry 226, CITIES AND TOWNS.
- V.1, Entry 227, CIVIL ADMINISTRATION
- V.1, Entry 228, CIVIL LIST.
- V.1, Entry 229, CIVIL RIGHTS BILL
- V.1, Entry 230, CIVIL SERVICE REFORM
- V.1, Entry 231, CIVILIZATION
- V.1, Entry 232, CLAY
- V.1, Entry 233, CLEARING, AND CLEARING HOUSES
- V.1, Entry 234, CLERICALISM
- V.1, Entry 235, CLIENTÈLE AND CUSTOM
- V.1, Entry 236, CLIMATE
- V.1, Entry 237, CLIMATE
- V.1, Entry 238, CLINTON
- V.1, Entry 239, CLINTON, George
- V.1, Entry 240, CL�TURE
- V.1, Entry 241, COASTING TRADE
- V.1, Entry 242, COCHIN CHINA
- V.1, Entry 243, COINAGE
- V.1, Entry 244, COLFAX
- V.1, Entry 245, COLONIZATION SOCIETY
- V.1, Entry 246, COLORADO
- V.1, Entry 247, COLOMBIA
- V.1, Entry 248, COMMERCE.
- V.1, Entry 249, COMMERCIAL CRISES
- V.1, Entry 250, COMMISSION
- V.1, Entry 251, COMMITTEES
- V.1, Entry 252, COMMON LAW
- V.1, Entry 253, COMMONS
- V.1, Entry 254, COMMUNE
- V.1, Entry 255, COMMUNISM
- V.1, Entry 256, COMPETITION.
- V.1, Entry 257, COMPROMISES
- V.1, Entry 258, COMPULSORY CIRCULATION
- V.1, Entry 259, COMPULSORY EDUCATION
- V.1, Entry 260, CONCESSION
- V.1, Entry 261, CONCLAVE.
- V.1, Entry 262, CONCLUSUM
- V.1, Entry 284, CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES
- V.1, Entry 301, CONVENTION
- V.1, Entry 375, DISTILLED SPIRITS
- V.1, Entry 384, DOMINION OF CANADA
- V.2, Entry 7, EDUCATION
- V.2, Entry 18, EMBARGO
- V.2, Entry 33, EXCHANGE
- V.2, Entry 35, EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS
- V.2, Entry 37, EXCHANGE OF WEALTH
- V.2, Entry 121, GREAT BRITAIN
- V.2, Entry 130, HABEAS CORPUS
- V.2, Entry 180, INDUSTRIAL ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION
- V.2, Entry 225, JUSTICE, Department of
- V.2, Entry 246, LAW
- V.2, Entry 364, NEW GRANADA
- V.2, Entry 379, NULLIFICATION
- V.3, Entry 4, OCEANICA
- V.3, Entry 29, PARIS MONETARY CONFERENCE
- V.3, Entry 32, PARLIAMENTARY LAW.
- V.3, Entry 116, RACES OF MANKIND
- V.3, Entry 137, REPUBLICAN PARTY
- V.3, Entry 155, ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.
- V.3, Entry 195, SLAVERY
- V.3, Entry 278, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
- V. 2, List of Writers
- V. 3, List of Writers
- V. 3, List of American Writers
BALLOT, from the Greek
, to cast or throw, a method of voting designed to secure secrecy, as distinguished from the open or
viva voce vote. The ballot is as old as the fifth century, B.C., when it was used in Athens, and we know not how much older. The Greek
dicasts, or judges, voted by ballot in giving their verdicts, using either sea-shells, or beans, or balls of metal, or stone, colored black for condemnation, or white for acquittal. In the Athenian assemblies, the common voting was by show of hands, but in all cases of privilege the voting was secret, and this was practiced even in the senate in cases of ostracism.
—In Rome the people in their assemblies (
comitia) voted at first by open response, but the custom of voting at elections by tablets, with the names of the candidates written on them, came into vogue B.C. 139, by the
lex Gabinia tabellaria. The votes were thrown into a chest, watched by
rogatores or inspectors, who collected the tablets and gave them to the
diribitores, who classified and counted the votes, and then handed them over to the
custodes, who finally checked them off by points marked on a tablet. In the
comitia tributa, when the people voted upon laws after discussion, the assembly was called by a
plebiscitum, and the vote taken by tribes. In elections, if two candidates had the same number of ballots, the decision was made between them by drawing lots.
—In Great Britain, which has the honor of originating trial by jury, voting by ballot never
became established at elections until 1872. It was suggested in political tracts two centuries before, and secret voting was actually employed in the parliament of Scotland in cases of ostracism. In corporate bodies, both private and municipal, election by ballot has long prevailed. In deliberative and legislative bodies, the reason for the ballot is not apparent, as it is in popular elections. The voting should be open in parliamentary bodies, to enforce responsibility, and bring the acts of their representatives before each constituency in the clearest manner. In popular elections, on the other hand, where the voter represents no delegated powers but is supposed to vote his own will, the secret ballot is a guarantee of personal independence.
—The first prominent agitation of the ballot in England came about in the struggle for parliamentary reform, the purification of elections, and the extension of the suffrage, in the first quarter of the present century. O’Connell brought in a bill for secret voting in 1830, and the first draft of Lord John Russell’s reform bill provided for the ballot, though it was left out later. This method of voting was supported in parliament by the historians Grote and Macaulay, and made steady progress, in spite of the ridicule of Sydney Smith and other literary wits, likening the ballot-box to a mouse-trap for catching the votes of Englishmen. Finally, a select committee, with Lord Hartington as chairman, reported in 1870 that corruption, treating and intimidation by priests and landlords, prevailed at elections in England and Ireland, and that voting by ballot would tend to promote peaceful and fair elections, and protect voters from undue influence, provided secrecy were made inviolable by the methods adopted. The ballot was introduced first at Manchester in 1869 as a test, and the voting was found more expeditious than the old
viva voce system. In 1872 Mr. Foster’s ballot act (35 and 36 Vict. c. 33) made the ballot compulsory in all parliamentary and municipal elections, except for the universities. This act requires the names of all the candidates to be printed on white paper, and the voter must fill up with a cross, X, the blank on the right hand opposite the name he votes for. The register of voters shows when an elector has received a ballot from one of the officers of election, and each ballot is marked with a number, corresponding to the counterfoil of the paper, which remains with the officer. This counterfoil is also marked with the voter’s number on the register, so that the vote may be identified, if the poll should be scrutinized or challenged. The voter folds the ballot so as to conceal his mark, but to show the stamp to the officer, and it is dropped in a box which is locked and sealed. The elections are held at school-rooms or other public places, and a separate compartment must be provided for every 150 electors. A returning officer counts the ballots, and transmits them, sealed, to the clerk of the crown in chancery; who destroys them at the end of one year. There have been two general parliamentary elections under the ballot act of 1872, and though it has not put an end to bribery or intimidation, they have been diminished, and the steady effect of the secret ballot is observed to be gradually to get rid of undue influence, and the more disreputable methods of canvassing that prevailed under the
viva voce system. In Australia, and other British colonies, the ballot generally prevails.
—In France, the secret vote used to be employed in deliberative voting in the chamber of deputies, but its use is now confined to elections by the people. The voting is superintended by a returning officer, four supervisors without salary, and a secretary. Every voter must present a card previously obtained at the registry office, to secure his identity. This the returning officer punches, and the vote is recorded by a “bulletin” printed with a candidate’s name. The number of votes given is compared with the register, and ballots are rejected which are illegible, blank, containing the name of the voter, or erroneously filled up.
—In Germany the secret ballot is in use in all elections for the
reichstag; registered voters only can vote, and ballots must be on white paper, and folded by the elector, and dropped into a closed box.
—In Italy candidates for the chamber of deputies are elected by ballot in public halls, to which only registered or qualified voters are admitted. A stamped piece of blank paper (the official is blue) is issued, on which the voter writes the name of his candidate and hands the folded paper to the presiding officer, who puts it in the box. The same officer oversees the public counting of the votes. It is stated that the ballot has greatly diminished the influence of the clerical power in Italian politics, and canvassing and bribery seldom occur.
—Spain, Belgium, Switzerland and Austria have the ballot, and in Hungary it is compulsory in the election of municipal councils, while it was abolished in parliamentary elections in 1874.
—In the United States, voting by ballot dates from early colonial times, and was made obligatory by the constitutions of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, North Carolina and other states, adopted in 1776. In New York
viva voce voting prevailed until 1778, when provision was made for electing a governor and lieutenant governor by ballot, and in 1787 this was extended to the legislature.
—The system of open voting which long prevailed in some of the southern states, has given place to the ballot throughout the Union, with the single exception of the state of Kentucky. In this state the constitution provides that the people shall vote
viva voce, though this is controlled as regards congressional elections by the act of congress (Revised Statutes, section 27), which requires all votes for representatives in congress to be by written or printed ballot.
—The constitutions of all the states provide that all elections shall be by ballot, with the above exception. In Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Nevada, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee
see and Texas, there is a constitutional provision requiring the legislature to vote
viva voce. In other states it is left to the legislature to regulate its own method of suffrage. Arkansas and Colorado have a constitutional requirement that at every election the ballots shall be numbered in the order in which they are received, and the number recorded by the election officers, on the list of voters opposite the name of the voter who presents the ballot. The election officers are to be sworn not to inquire or disclose how any elector shall have voted. Similar safeguards against “repeating,” or fraudulent voting, are provided by law in many states where there is no constitutional provision on the subject. Too many of the states, however, are without efficient registration laws, and a neglect to provide proper legal safeguards for free and honest suffrage is one of the most serious evils which threaten the safety and permanence of republican institutions. All kinds of frauds and deceptions are practiced or attempted with the ballot, such as: 1, counterfeiting the real ballot, and substituting some insidious change of name of an important candidate; 2, heading printed ballots with the name and device of one party, and printing under it the names of the candidates of the opposite party; 3, “stuffing” the ballot box, or voting two or more ballot papers folded so as to appear as one; 4, using “tissue ballots,” or votes printed on thin tissue paper so as to conceal a large number of surplus or fraudulent votes, smuggled into the boxes without detection; 5, “repeating,” or voting by the same man at several different polls; 6, “personation,” or another kind of double voting, by the same man using a different name, at the same poll.
—As a safeguard against some of these practices, many ingenious methods have been proposed and experimented upon. A mechanical ballot box, with automatic devices preventing any voter from casting more than one ballot, or at least preventing the count of more than one to each voter, has been invented. This box gives an alarm as each vote is received, secures strict secrecy to the voter, counts and files each ballot on a wire in the box, beyond the reach of any hand, and shows the aggregate vote, with which the official vote must agree. It is claimed to be equally efficient against false counting, tabulating, or returning, as against fraudulent voting.
—Ballot boxes have been used of many different materials, from the primitive hat or cigar box, to the voting urn, glass ballot box, and the elaborate mechanical repositories of votes above referred to. Frauds upon the ballot box should be ranked among the worst of crimes against republican government. The secrecy and the sacredness of the ballot should be maintained at whatever cost. The more free the people, the more carefully will the secret ballot be guarded, as the best guarantee of personal independence.
A. R. SPOFFORD.