Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States
By John J. Lalor
NEITHER American nor English literature has hitherto possessed a Cyclopædia of Political Science and Political Economy. The want of a work of reference on these important branches of knowledge has long been felt, especially by lawyers, journalists, members of our state and national legislatures, and the large and intelligent class of capitalists and business men who give serious thought to the political and social questions of the day. The present work, which will be completed in three volumes, is the first to supply that want. It is also the first Political History of the United States in encyclopædic form—the first to which the reader can refer for an account of the important events or facts in our political history, as he would to a dictionary for the precise meaning of a word. The French, the Germans and even the Italians are richer in works of reference on political science and political economy than the Americans or the English. The Germans have Rotteck and Welcker’s
Staatslexikon, and Bluntschli and Brater’s
Staatswörterbuch; the French, Block’s
Dictionnaire Général de la Politique, and the celebrated
Dictionnaire de l’Economie Politique, edited by Guillaumin and Coquelin.The “Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and of the Political History of the United States” is intended to be to the American and English reader what the above-named works are to French and German students of political science and political economy. The articles by foreigners in our work are largely translations from the
Dictionnaire de l’Economie Politique, the
Dictionnaire Général de la Politique, the
Staatswörterbuch, and original articles by Mr. T. E. Cliffe Leslie, the eminent English economist; while the American articles are by the best American and Canadian writers on political economy and political science. The task of writing the articles on the political history of the United States was confided to one person, Mr. Alexander Johnston, of Norwalk, Connecticut, thoroughness, conciseness and the absence of repetition and of redundancy being thus secured…. [From the Preface]
First Pub. Date
New York: Maynard, Merrill, and Co.
Originally printed in 3 volumes. Includes articles by Frédéric Bastiat, Gustave de Molinari, Henry George, J. B. Say, Francis A. Walker, and more.
The text of this edition is in the public domain.
- V.1, Entry 1, ABDICATION
- V.1, Entry 2, ABOLITION AND ABOLITIONISTS
- V.1, Entry 3, ABSENTEEISM
- V.1, Entry 4, ABSOLUTE POWER
- V.1, Entry 5, ABSOLUTISM
- V.1, Entry 6, ABSTENTION
- V.1, Entry 7, ABUSES IN POLITICS
- V.1, Entry 8, ABYSSINIA
- V.1, Entry 9, ACADEMIES
- V.1, Entry 10, ACADEMIES
- V.1, Entry 11, ACCLAMATION
- V.1, Entry 12, ACCUMULATION OF WEALTH
- V.1, Entry 13, ACT
- V.1, Entry 14, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 15, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 16, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 17, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 18, ADJOURNMENT
- V.1, Entry 19, ADMINISTRATION
- V.1, Entry 20, ADMINISTRATIONS
- V.1, Entry 21, AFRICA
- V.1, Entry 22, AGE
- V.1, Entry 23, AGENT
- V.1, Entry 24, AGENTS
- V.1, Entry 25, AGIO
- V.1, Entry 26, AGIOTAGE
- V.1, Entry 27, AGRICULTURE
- V.1, Entry 28, ALABAMA
- V.1, Entry 29, ALABAMA CLAIMS
- V.1, Entry 30, ALASKA
- V.1, Entry 31, ALBANY PLAN OF UNION
- V.1, Entry 32, ALBANY REGENCY
- V.1, Entry 33, ALCALDE
- V.1, Entry 34, ALCOHOL
- V.1, Entry 35, ALGERIA
- V.1, Entry 36, ALGERINE WAR
- V.1, Entry 37, ALIEN AND SEDITION LAWS
- V.1, Entry 38, ALIENS
- V.1, Entry 39, ALLEGIANCE
- V.1, Entry 40, ALLEGIANCE
- V.1, Entry 41, ALLIANCE
- V.1, Entry 42, ALLIANCE
- V.1, Entry 43, ALLOYAGE
- V.1, Entry 44, ALMANACH DE GOTHA
- V.1, Entry 45, ALSACE-LORRAINE
- V.1, Entry 46, AMBASSADOR
- V.1, Entry 47, AMBITION
- V.1, Entry 48, AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
- V.1, Entry 49, AMERICA
- V.1, Entry 50, AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE
- V.1, Entry 51, AMERICAN PARTY
- V.1, Entry 52, AMERICAN WHIGS
- V.1, Entry 53, AMES
- V.1, Entry 54, AMISTAD CASE
- V.1, Entry 55, AMNESTY
- V.1, Entry 56, AMNESTY
- V.1, Entry 57, ANAM
- V.1, Entry 58, ANARCHY
- V.1, Entry 59, ANCIEN RÉGIME
- V.1, Entry 60, ANDORRA
- V.1, Entry 61, ANHALT
- V.1, Entry 62, ANNEXATION
- V.1, Entry 63, ANNEXATIONS
- V.1, Entry 64, ANTI-FEDERAL PARTY
- V.1, Entry 65, ANTI-MASONRY
- V.1, Entry 66, ANTI-NEBRASKA MEN
- V.1, Entry 67, ANTI-RENTERS
- V.1, Entry 68, ANTI-SLAVERY.
- V.1, Entry 69, APPORTIONMENT
- V.1, Entry 70, APPROPRIATION.
- V.1, Entry 71, APPROPRIATIONS
- V.1, Entry 72, ARBITRAGE
- V.1, Entry 73, ARBITRARY ARRESTS
- V.1, Entry 74, ARBITRARY POWER
- V.1, Entry 75, ARBITRATION
- V.1, Entry 76, ARCHONS
- V.1, Entry 77, AREOPAGUS.
- V.1, Entry 78, ARGENTINE CONFEDERATION
- V.1, Entry 79, ARISTOCRACY.
- V.1, Entry 80, ARISTOCRATIC AND DEMOCRATIC IDEAS.
- V.1, Entry 81, ARITHMETIC
- V.1, Entry 82, ARIZONA
- V.1, Entry 83, ARKANSAS
- V.1, Entry 84, ARMISTICE
- V.1, Entry 85, ARMIES
- V.1, Entry 86, ARMY
- V.1, Entry 87, ARTHUR
- V.1, Entry 88, ARTISANS
- V.1, Entry 89, ARYAN RACES.
- V.1, Entry 90, ASIA
- V.1, Entry 91, ASSEMBLY (IN U. S. HISTORY)
- V.1, Entry 92, ASSESSMENTS
- V.1, Entry 93, ASSIGNATS
- V.1, Entry 94, ASSOCIATION AND ASSOCIATIONS
- V.1, Entry 95, ASYLUM
- V.1, Entry 96, ATELIERS NATIONAUX
- V.1, Entry 97, ATTAINDER
- V.1, Entry 98, ATTORNEYS GENERAL
- V.1, Entry 99, AUSTRALIA
- V.1, Entry 100, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
- V.1, Entry 101, AUTHORITY
- V.1, Entry 102, AUTHORS
- V.1, Entry 103, AUTOCRAT
- V.1, Entry 104, AUTONOMY.
- V.1, Entry 105, AYES AND NOES
- V.1, Entry 106, BADEN
- V.1, Entry 107, BALANCE OF POWER
- V.1, Entry 108, BALANCE OF TRADE
- V.1, Entry 109, BALLOT
- V.1, Entry 110, BANK CONTROVERSIES
- V.1, Entry 111, BANKING
- V.1, Entry 112, BANK NOTES.
- V.1, Entry 113, BANKRUPTCY.
- V.1, Entry 114, BANKRUPTCY, National.
- V.1, Entry 115, BANKS.
- V.1, Entry 116, BANKS, Functions of.
- V.1, Entry 117, BANKS OF ISSUE
- V.1, Entry 118, BANKS, Advantages of Savings.
- V.1, Entry 119, BANKS, History and Management of Savings,
- V.1, Entry 120, BAR
- V.1, Entry 121, BARNBURNERS
- V.1, Entry 122, BARRICADE
- V.1, Entry 123, BARTER.
- V.1, Entry 124, BASTILLE
- V.1, Entry 125, BAVARIA
- V.1, Entry 126, BELGIUM
- V.1, Entry 127, BELL
- V.1, Entry 128, BELLIGERENTS
- V.1, Entry 129, BENTON
- V.1, Entry 130, BERLIN DECREE
- V.1, Entry 131, BILL
- V.1, Entry 132, BILL OF EXCHANGE
- V.1, Entry 133, BILL OF RIGHTS
- V.1, Entry 134, BILLION
- V.1, Entry 135, BILLS
- V.1, Entry 136, BI-METALLISM.
- V.1, Entry 137, BIRNEY
- V.1, Entry 138, BLACK COCKADE
- V.1, Entry 139, BLACK CODE.
- V.1, Entry 140, BLACK REPUBLICAN.
- V.1, Entry 141, BLAINE
- V.1, Entry 142, BLAIR
- V.1, Entry 143, BLOCKADE
- V.1, Entry 144, BLOODY BILL
- V.1, Entry 145, BLUE LAWS
- V.1, Entry 146, BLUE LIGHT
- V.1, Entry 147, BOARD OF TRADE.
- V.1, Entry 148, BOLIVIA
- V.1, Entry 149, BOOTY
- V.1, Entry 150, BORDER RUFFIANS
- V.1, Entry 151, BORDER STATES
- V.1, Entry 152, BOURGEOISIE
- V.1, Entry 153, BOUTWELL
- V.1, Entry 154, BRAHMANISM.
- V.1, Entry 155, BRAZIL
- V.1, Entry 156, BRECKENRIDGE
- V.1, Entry 157, BROAD SEAL WAR
- V.1, Entry 158, BROKERS
- V.1, Entry 159, BROOKS
- V.1, Entry 160, BROWN
- V.1, Entry 161, BUCHANAN
- V.1, Entry 162, BUCKSHOT WAR
- V.1, Entry 163, BUCKTAILS
- V.1, Entry 164, BUDDHISM
- V.1, Entry 165, BUDGET
- V.1, Entry 166, BULL
- V.1, Entry 167, BUNDESRATH
- V.1, Entry 168, BUREAUCRACY
- V.1, Entry 169, BURGESSES
- V.1, Entry 170, BURLINGAME
- V.1, Entry 171, BURR
- V.1, Entry 172, BUTLER, Benj. F.
- V.1, Entry 173, BUTLER, William Orlando
- V.1, Entry 174, CACHET
- V.1, Entry 175, CÆSARISM
- V.1, Entry 176, CALENDAR
- V.1, Entry 177, CALHOUN
- V.1, Entry 178, CALIFORNIA
- V.1, Entry 179, CANADA
- V.1, Entry 180, CANALS
- V.1, Entry 181, CANON LAW
- V.1, Entry 182, CAPITAL
- V.1, Entry 183, CAPITAL
- V.1, Entry 184, CAPITULATION
- V.1, Entry 185, CARICATURE
- V.1, Entry 186, CARPET BAGGERS
- V.1, Entry 187, CARTEL
- V.1, Entry 188, CASS
- V.1, Entry 189, CASUS BELLI
- V.1, Entry 190, CAUCUS
- V.1, Entry 191, CAUCUS SYSTEM
- V.1, Entry 192, CAUSE AND EFFECT IN POLITICS.
- V.1, Entry 193, CELIBACY, Clerical
- V.1, Entry 194, CELIBACY, Political Aspects of.
- V.1, Entry 195, CELTS.
- V.1, Entry 196, CENSURE.
- V.1, Entry 197, CENSURE OF MORALS.
- V.1, Entry 198, CENSURES
- V.1, Entry 199, CENSUS.
- V.1, Entry 200, CENTRALIZATION and DECENTRALIZATION.
- V.1, Entry 201, CEREMONIAL
- V.1, Entry 202, CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.
- V.1, Entry 203, CHARGÉ D'AFFAIRES.
- V.1, Entry 204, CHARITY, Private.
- V.1, Entry 205, CHARITY, Public.
- V.1, Entry 206, CHARITY, State.
- V.1, Entry 207, CHASE
- V.1, Entry 208, CHECKS AND BALANCES.
- V.1, Entry 209, CHEROKEE CASE
- V.1, Entry 210, CHESAPEAKE CASE.
- V.1, Entry 211, CHILI.
- V.1, Entry 212, CHINA
- V.1, Entry 213, CHINESE IMMIGRATION.
- V.1, Entry 214, CHIVALRY.
- V.1, Entry 215, CHRISTIANITY.
- V.1, Entry 216, CHURCH AND STATE
- V.1, Entry 217, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 218, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 219, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 220, CHURCHES AND RELIGIONS
- V.1, Entry 221, CHURCHES
- V.1, Entry 222, CINCINNATI
- V.1, Entry 223, CIPHER DISPATCHES AND DECIPHERMENT
- V.1, Entry 224, CIRCULATION OF WEALTH.
- V.1, Entry 225, CITIES
- V.1, Entry 226, CITIES AND TOWNS.
- V.1, Entry 227, CIVIL ADMINISTRATION
- V.1, Entry 228, CIVIL LIST.
- V.1, Entry 229, CIVIL RIGHTS BILL
- V.1, Entry 230, CIVIL SERVICE REFORM
- V.1, Entry 231, CIVILIZATION
- V.1, Entry 232, CLAY
- V.1, Entry 233, CLEARING, AND CLEARING HOUSES
- V.1, Entry 234, CLERICALISM
- V.1, Entry 235, CLIENTÈLE AND CUSTOM
- V.1, Entry 236, CLIMATE
- V.1, Entry 237, CLIMATE
- V.1, Entry 238, CLINTON
- V.1, Entry 239, CLINTON, George
- V.1, Entry 240, CL�TURE
- V.1, Entry 241, COASTING TRADE
- V.1, Entry 242, COCHIN CHINA
- V.1, Entry 243, COINAGE
- V.1, Entry 244, COLFAX
- V.1, Entry 245, COLONIZATION SOCIETY
- V.1, Entry 246, COLORADO
- V.1, Entry 247, COLOMBIA
- V.1, Entry 248, COMMERCE.
- V.1, Entry 249, COMMERCIAL CRISES
- V.1, Entry 250, COMMISSION
- V.1, Entry 251, COMMITTEES
- V.1, Entry 252, COMMON LAW
- V.1, Entry 253, COMMONS
- V.1, Entry 254, COMMUNE
- V.1, Entry 255, COMMUNISM
- V.1, Entry 256, COMPETITION.
- V.1, Entry 257, COMPROMISES
- V.1, Entry 258, COMPULSORY CIRCULATION
- V.1, Entry 259, COMPULSORY EDUCATION
- V.1, Entry 260, CONCESSION
- V.1, Entry 261, CONCLAVE.
- V.1, Entry 262, CONCLUSUM
- V.1, Entry 284, CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES
- V.1, Entry 301, CONVENTION
- V.1, Entry 375, DISTILLED SPIRITS
- V.1, Entry 384, DOMINION OF CANADA
- V.2, Entry 7, EDUCATION
- V.2, Entry 18, EMBARGO
- V.2, Entry 33, EXCHANGE
- V.2, Entry 35, EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS
- V.2, Entry 37, EXCHANGE OF WEALTH
- V.2, Entry 121, GREAT BRITAIN
- V.2, Entry 130, HABEAS CORPUS
- V.2, Entry 180, INDUSTRIAL ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION
- V.2, Entry 225, JUSTICE, Department of
- V.2, Entry 246, LAW
- V.2, Entry 364, NEW GRANADA
- V.2, Entry 379, NULLIFICATION
- V.3, Entry 4, OCEANICA
- V.3, Entry 29, PARIS MONETARY CONFERENCE
- V.3, Entry 32, PARLIAMENTARY LAW.
- V.3, Entry 116, RACES OF MANKIND
- V.3, Entry 137, REPUBLICAN PARTY
- V.3, Entry 155, ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.
- V.3, Entry 195, SLAVERY
- V.3, Entry 278, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
- V. 2, List of Writers
- V. 3, List of Writers
- V. 3, List of American Writers
INDUSTRIAL ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION is the name given to certain methods of preventing labor disputes or settling them when they arise, by their submission to the decision of umpires or judges, or by conferences between the parties to the dispute or their authorized representatives.
—Though the terms arbitration and conciliation are jointly used to name this system, and though in many instances, in recent years, the best results came from their joint operation, yet they are by no means the same, though having the same object in view. Arbitration implies a more or less formal hearing of the matter in dispute before an umpire or umpires, with a formal decision or award which the parties are legally or morally bound to accept. Under conciliation there is no umpire, nor any power lodged with any one or more persons to make a binding award. Any decision arrived at is the result of conferences, and is of the nature of an agreement. As in arbitration, there are a hearing and discussion of the questions at issue, but usually very informal. The result of arbitration partakes of the nature of a binding judgment; of conciliation, of a mutual agreement.
—In their origin and modes of working, arbitration and conciliation are either, 1,
Legal, that is, established and operated under statute law with its sanctions and power for enforcing awards; or, 2,
Voluntary, that is, established and operated by mutual agreement. The submission of disputes under legal arbitration and conciliation is either, 1,
Compulsory, that is, the question must be submitted for decision upon the application of either party; or, 2,
Voluntary, that is, it can be submitted by mutual agreement. In either case, while there may be a choice as to the submission of the dispute, yet when so submitted the decision is binding upon both parties, and can, so far as its character permits, be legally enforced. Of course, the submission of questions to voluntary arbitration and conciliation is always voluntary, and the awards are only morally binding and can not be legally enforced.
—The method of compulsory arbitration and conciliation, under the forms and sanctions of law, which has existed in France and Belgium since early in the present century, and which in the former country succeeded to some of the powers of determining trade and labor disputes possessed by the ancient trade guilds until they were abolished in 1791, is treated of under the title CONSEILS DES PRUD’HOMMES, which see. The only other country in which arbitration and conciliation has been employed to any considerable extent is England, though the forms and methods used differ materially from the French and Belgian. In treating of English arbitration and conciliation it will be most convenient to consider its history and methods under two heads, Legal and Voluntary,—I.
Legal Arbitration and Conciliation in England. Under the Elizabethan statutes concerning labor which codified many of the rules and regulations existing for centuries among the English craft-guilds, the assessment of wages and settlement of disputes between masters and apprentices, as well as the protection of the latter, were placed entirely in the hands of magistrates. Under the decisions of the courts these statutes were only applicable to the trades existing at the time of their passage, and to these only in certain localities. During succeeding reigns these statutes were modified and enlarged. New industries were included in their scope and additional provisions and statutes enacted providing various means for the settlement of labor disputes, gradually taking from the magistrates their arbitrating power and developing the idea of arbitration by chosen or appointed referees. In 1824 all these acts were consolidated and replaced by that of the 5 Geo. IV., cap. 96, entitled “An act to consolidate and amend the laws relative to the arbitration of disputes between masters and workmen.”
This act, which was one of the outcomes of the investigation of the operation of the labor laws by a committee of the house of commons, was evidently modeled after the French law establishing conseils des prud’hommes, but adapted to the different character of English industry and institutions. In it provision is made for the compulsory submission to arbitration, upon the request of either party to the same, of disputes arising between employer and employed in certain specified trades and upon certain subjects, which are also specified in the act. The justice of the peace, before whom the case is brought, or arbitrators elected by a board, composed equally of employers and employed, nominated by the justice, hear and determine the dispute; or any other method that may be mutually agreed upon by the disputants can be adopted; but it is carefully provided that “nothing in this act contained shall authorize any justice or justices acting as hereinafter mentioned to establish a rate of wages or prices of labor or workmanship at which the workman shall in future be paid, unless with the mutual consent of both masters and workmen.” The awards under this act could be enforced by legal processes. Though this act is still in full force in England, it has rarely, if ever, been used.
—Shortly after the passage of this act voluntary boards of arbitration and conciliation were introduced into some of the industries of England. In addition to the formal arbitration of existing disputes contemplated in the act of 1824, these boards considered and fixed future rates of wages, and also provided for conciliation committees, whose province was to adjust differences between employers and employed by mutual good offices without a formal hearing and award. In 1867 these boards had become so numerous and successful that an attempt was made to give them a legal basis, if they so chose, by the passage of the 30 and 31 Vict., cap 105, commonly called Lord St. Leonards’ Act. This act is entitled “An act to establish equitable councils of conciliation to adjust differences between masters and workmen.” It provides for the formation of a council of conciliation under authority of the home secretary, upon the joint petition of the masters and workmen of any particular trade working in the same locality. It also specifies the method of election of this council, the qualifications of electors, and other matters necessary to its proceedings. The council is to hear all differences between masters and workmen, as set forth in the act of 1824, that may be submitted to them by both parties. The award is to be final and conclusive, and may be enforced by proceedings of distress, sale or imprisonment, as provided in the recited acts. It is, however, specially provided that “nothing in this act contained shall authorize the said council to establish a rate of wages, or price of labor, or workmanship, at which the workman shall in future be paid.” The quorum of the council is to consist of three members, but a committee called the committee of conciliation, appointed by the council, and consisting of one master and one workman, shall endeavor to reconcile all differences in the first instance. The chairman is to be unconnected with trade, and has a casting voice. No counsel, solicitors or attorneys are to be heard before the council or committee without the consent of both parties—In both of these acts especial care is taken to provide against the fixing of future rates of wages—one of the most prolific sources of dispute. This was a serious defect. Accordingly, in 1872 an act was passed, the uses of which, briefly stated, are three, viz.: 1. To provide the most simple machinery for a binding submission to arbitration, and for the proceedings therein. 2. To extend facilities of arbitration to questions of wages, hours, and other conditions of labor, and also to all the numerous and important matters which may otherwise have to be determined by justices under the provisions of the master and servant act, 1867. 3. To provide for submission to arbitration of future disputes by anticipation, without waiting until the time when a dispute has actually arisen, and the parties are too much excited to agree upon arbitrators. These acts have been of but little practical value. In their best features the recent ones have followed, not preceded, the voluntary practice of arbitration and conciliation, and they have only sought to give the forms and sanctions of law to a practice that was successfully in force without such forms and sanctions. If the same (if not better) results can be attained without an appeal to law, the English character is such that it will always prefer the non-legal to the legal.
Voluntary Arbitration and Conciliation in England. Prior to 1860 there had been in England frequent settlements of labor disputes by their voluntary submission to boards of arbitration and conciliation. These had attracted but little attention, however, and the system was making little or no progress. In this year, through the efforts of Mr. A. J. Mundella, the first permanent or continuous board of arbitration and conciliation in England was established in the hosiery and glove trade at Nottingham. This was soon followed, though without any knowledge of the existence of the Nottingham board, by the establishment of a board in the Wolverhampton building trades through the efforts of Mr. Rupert Kettle, who has since been knighted for his services in behalf of this system. Boards were soon formed in the manufactured iron trade, and in the coal and other trades, and for nearly twenty years many labor disputes and the rates of wages for many thousands of workmen have been settled by these boards without strikes or lockouts. These boards are purely voluntary. They have no sanction of law—no legal existence. There is no forced submission of disputes, nor is there any power except a man’s sense of honor, public opinion, and the aggregate honor of the trades unions or the employers’ associations to enforce the acceptance of the awards; and to the honor
of the parties involved be it said, that except in a very few isolated and unimportant cases, these have been found sufficient.
—The boards are made up of an equal number of employers and employed, each class electing its own representatives. In some boards each establishment has a representative of each class, as in the north of England iron trade. In other cases groups of establishments elect the members, as in the lace trade of Nottingham. The officers of the boards are generally a president and a vice-president, one an employer and the other an employé, and two secretaries, one for each class. The two classes have equal influence and an equal vote on all questions. Meetings are held monthly, quarterly or less frequently, at which all subjects at issue are discussed and settled, if possible. In all of these boards there is a provision for settling minor disputes by conciliation without convening the entire board. Failing a settlement in this way, however, the dispute is referred to the board, when it is generally adjusted, unless it is a subject of some moment. Broader questions, those that affect the trade of an entire district, or of a class, are in the first instance generally referred to the board, and, in case the board can not agree, to an umpire. In the Nottingham board there is no umpire, the board deciding all questions. This referee or umpire is in some cases a regularly elected officer of the board—a standing umpire or referee, as he is often termed—or he may be chosen for the decision of a particular question. His decision is final. The members of the board are clothed by their constituents with plenary powers. The expenses are met equally by each class. The course of proceedings before the board is very simple. In case of a claim for an advance in wages, for example, the employés’ representatives submit, through their secretary, a formal statement setting forth the reasons for the demand, such as an increase in the demand for the goods manufactured and in the selling price for the same, increased demand for labor, or higher prices paid in other districts manufacturing similar goods. The representatives of the employers submit a formal statement in reply, stating their reasons for refusing the demand. With these statements before them the justice and advisability of the demand are discussed by the members. The proceedings are without ceremony. No valuable time is wasted discussing parliamentary rules. Statements are made, and questioned or impeached. Proofs are demanded and furnished. The circumstances surrounding the market and the trade are canvassed, estimates compared, statistics set forth, and the strength of competition measured. As the outcome of all this, a result is generally reached that, if not entirely satisfactory to one or the other party, is accepted as preferable to a strike or lockout.
—Arbitration and conciliation has not been generally adopted in England as a means of settling labor disputes. In many trades it has prevailed through a series of years and then been abandoned and the method of strikes and lockouts substituted; but in those trades in which it has been most thoroughly and systematically used during the time it prevailed, strikes and lockouts were almost unknown. One great advantage of these boards is, that they form a market where labor and capital can come together and in a friendly spirit fix what is “a fair price for a fair day’s work.” Judge Kettle admirably expresses this when he says, “I verify believe that, without limiting the influence of fair competition, boards of arbitration, properly worked, afford the best means of fixing the market price of a fair day’s work.” They also have served to bring employer and employé into closer relations. Under their action a most friendly feeling has taken the place of hostility, and confidence and mutual respect have been inspired where formerly all was suspicion and hatred. The changed relations of employer and employed have been recognized. They have met around the same table as equals, and out of all this have come juster and truer views of their mutual rights and duties.
—For further and more detailed information on this subject consult
Industrial Conciliation, by Henry Crompton, London, 1876;
Strikes and Arbitration, by Rupert Kettle, London, 1867;
Masters and Men, by Rupert Kettle, London, 1871;
Report of the Trades Union Committee of the British Social Science Association, London, 1860;
Report on the Practical Operations of Arbitration and Conciliation in the Settlement of Difficulties between Employers and Employés in England. by Jos. D. Weeks, Harrisburg, Pa., 1879;
Industrial Arbitration and Conciliation in New York, Ohio and Pennsylvania, by Jos. D. Weeks, Boston, 1881.
Jos. D. WEEKS.