Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States
By John J. Lalor
NEITHER American nor English literature has hitherto possessed a Cyclopædia of Political Science and Political Economy. The want of a work of reference on these important branches of knowledge has long been felt, especially by lawyers, journalists, members of our state and national legislatures, and the large and intelligent class of capitalists and business men who give serious thought to the political and social questions of the day. The present work, which will be completed in three volumes, is the first to supply that want. It is also the first Political History of the United States in encyclopædic form—the first to which the reader can refer for an account of the important events or facts in our political history, as he would to a dictionary for the precise meaning of a word. The French, the Germans and even the Italians are richer in works of reference on political science and political economy than the Americans or the English. The Germans have Rotteck and Welcker’s
Staatslexikon, and Bluntschli and Brater’s
Staatswörterbuch; the French, Block’s
Dictionnaire Général de la Politique, and the celebrated
Dictionnaire de l’Economie Politique, edited by Guillaumin and Coquelin.The “Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and of the Political History of the United States” is intended to be to the American and English reader what the above-named works are to French and German students of political science and political economy. The articles by foreigners in our work are largely translations from the
Dictionnaire de l’Economie Politique, the
Dictionnaire Général de la Politique, the
Staatswörterbuch, and original articles by Mr. T. E. Cliffe Leslie, the eminent English economist; while the American articles are by the best American and Canadian writers on political economy and political science. The task of writing the articles on the political history of the United States was confided to one person, Mr. Alexander Johnston, of Norwalk, Connecticut, thoroughness, conciseness and the absence of repetition and of redundancy being thus secured…. [From the Preface]
First Pub. Date
New York: Maynard, Merrill, and Co.
Originally printed in 3 volumes. Includes articles by Frédéric Bastiat, Gustave de Molinari, Henry George, J. B. Say, Francis A. Walker, and more.
The text of this edition is in the public domain.
- V.1, Entry 1, ABDICATION
- V.1, Entry 2, ABOLITION AND ABOLITIONISTS
- V.1, Entry 3, ABSENTEEISM
- V.1, Entry 4, ABSOLUTE POWER
- V.1, Entry 5, ABSOLUTISM
- V.1, Entry 6, ABSTENTION
- V.1, Entry 7, ABUSES IN POLITICS
- V.1, Entry 8, ABYSSINIA
- V.1, Entry 9, ACADEMIES
- V.1, Entry 10, ACADEMIES
- V.1, Entry 11, ACCLAMATION
- V.1, Entry 12, ACCUMULATION OF WEALTH
- V.1, Entry 13, ACT
- V.1, Entry 14, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 15, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 16, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 17, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 18, ADJOURNMENT
- V.1, Entry 19, ADMINISTRATION
- V.1, Entry 20, ADMINISTRATIONS
- V.1, Entry 21, AFRICA
- V.1, Entry 22, AGE
- V.1, Entry 23, AGENT
- V.1, Entry 24, AGENTS
- V.1, Entry 25, AGIO
- V.1, Entry 26, AGIOTAGE
- V.1, Entry 27, AGRICULTURE
- V.1, Entry 28, ALABAMA
- V.1, Entry 29, ALABAMA CLAIMS
- V.1, Entry 30, ALASKA
- V.1, Entry 31, ALBANY PLAN OF UNION
- V.1, Entry 32, ALBANY REGENCY
- V.1, Entry 33, ALCALDE
- V.1, Entry 34, ALCOHOL
- V.1, Entry 35, ALGERIA
- V.1, Entry 36, ALGERINE WAR
- V.1, Entry 37, ALIEN AND SEDITION LAWS
- V.1, Entry 38, ALIENS
- V.1, Entry 39, ALLEGIANCE
- V.1, Entry 40, ALLEGIANCE
- V.1, Entry 41, ALLIANCE
- V.1, Entry 42, ALLIANCE
- V.1, Entry 43, ALLOYAGE
- V.1, Entry 44, ALMANACH DE GOTHA
- V.1, Entry 45, ALSACE-LORRAINE
- V.1, Entry 46, AMBASSADOR
- V.1, Entry 47, AMBITION
- V.1, Entry 48, AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
- V.1, Entry 49, AMERICA
- V.1, Entry 50, AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE
- V.1, Entry 51, AMERICAN PARTY
- V.1, Entry 52, AMERICAN WHIGS
- V.1, Entry 53, AMES
- V.1, Entry 54, AMISTAD CASE
- V.1, Entry 55, AMNESTY
- V.1, Entry 56, AMNESTY
- V.1, Entry 57, ANAM
- V.1, Entry 58, ANARCHY
- V.1, Entry 59, ANCIEN RÉGIME
- V.1, Entry 60, ANDORRA
- V.1, Entry 61, ANHALT
- V.1, Entry 62, ANNEXATION
- V.1, Entry 63, ANNEXATIONS
- V.1, Entry 64, ANTI-FEDERAL PARTY
- V.1, Entry 65, ANTI-MASONRY
- V.1, Entry 66, ANTI-NEBRASKA MEN
- V.1, Entry 67, ANTI-RENTERS
- V.1, Entry 68, ANTI-SLAVERY.
- V.1, Entry 69, APPORTIONMENT
- V.1, Entry 70, APPROPRIATION.
- V.1, Entry 71, APPROPRIATIONS
- V.1, Entry 72, ARBITRAGE
- V.1, Entry 73, ARBITRARY ARRESTS
- V.1, Entry 74, ARBITRARY POWER
- V.1, Entry 75, ARBITRATION
- V.1, Entry 76, ARCHONS
- V.1, Entry 77, AREOPAGUS.
- V.1, Entry 78, ARGENTINE CONFEDERATION
- V.1, Entry 79, ARISTOCRACY.
- V.1, Entry 80, ARISTOCRATIC AND DEMOCRATIC IDEAS.
- V.1, Entry 81, ARITHMETIC
- V.1, Entry 82, ARIZONA
- V.1, Entry 83, ARKANSAS
- V.1, Entry 84, ARMISTICE
- V.1, Entry 85, ARMIES
- V.1, Entry 86, ARMY
- V.1, Entry 87, ARTHUR
- V.1, Entry 88, ARTISANS
- V.1, Entry 89, ARYAN RACES.
- V.1, Entry 90, ASIA
- V.1, Entry 91, ASSEMBLY (IN U. S. HISTORY)
- V.1, Entry 92, ASSESSMENTS
- V.1, Entry 93, ASSIGNATS
- V.1, Entry 94, ASSOCIATION AND ASSOCIATIONS
- V.1, Entry 95, ASYLUM
- V.1, Entry 96, ATELIERS NATIONAUX
- V.1, Entry 97, ATTAINDER
- V.1, Entry 98, ATTORNEYS GENERAL
- V.1, Entry 99, AUSTRALIA
- V.1, Entry 100, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
- V.1, Entry 101, AUTHORITY
- V.1, Entry 102, AUTHORS
- V.1, Entry 103, AUTOCRAT
- V.1, Entry 104, AUTONOMY.
- V.1, Entry 105, AYES AND NOES
- V.1, Entry 106, BADEN
- V.1, Entry 107, BALANCE OF POWER
- V.1, Entry 108, BALANCE OF TRADE
- V.1, Entry 109, BALLOT
- V.1, Entry 110, BANK CONTROVERSIES
- V.1, Entry 111, BANKING
- V.1, Entry 112, BANK NOTES.
- V.1, Entry 113, BANKRUPTCY.
- V.1, Entry 114, BANKRUPTCY, National.
- V.1, Entry 115, BANKS.
- V.1, Entry 116, BANKS, Functions of.
- V.1, Entry 117, BANKS OF ISSUE
- V.1, Entry 118, BANKS, Advantages of Savings.
- V.1, Entry 119, BANKS, History and Management of Savings,
- V.1, Entry 120, BAR
- V.1, Entry 121, BARNBURNERS
- V.1, Entry 122, BARRICADE
- V.1, Entry 123, BARTER.
- V.1, Entry 124, BASTILLE
- V.1, Entry 125, BAVARIA
- V.1, Entry 126, BELGIUM
- V.1, Entry 127, BELL
- V.1, Entry 128, BELLIGERENTS
- V.1, Entry 129, BENTON
- V.1, Entry 130, BERLIN DECREE
- V.1, Entry 131, BILL
- V.1, Entry 132, BILL OF EXCHANGE
- V.1, Entry 133, BILL OF RIGHTS
- V.1, Entry 134, BILLION
- V.1, Entry 135, BILLS
- V.1, Entry 136, BI-METALLISM.
- V.1, Entry 137, BIRNEY
- V.1, Entry 138, BLACK COCKADE
- V.1, Entry 139, BLACK CODE.
- V.1, Entry 140, BLACK REPUBLICAN.
- V.1, Entry 141, BLAINE
- V.1, Entry 142, BLAIR
- V.1, Entry 143, BLOCKADE
- V.1, Entry 144, BLOODY BILL
- V.1, Entry 145, BLUE LAWS
- V.1, Entry 146, BLUE LIGHT
- V.1, Entry 147, BOARD OF TRADE.
- V.1, Entry 148, BOLIVIA
- V.1, Entry 149, BOOTY
- V.1, Entry 150, BORDER RUFFIANS
- V.1, Entry 151, BORDER STATES
- V.1, Entry 152, BOURGEOISIE
- V.1, Entry 153, BOUTWELL
- V.1, Entry 154, BRAHMANISM.
- V.1, Entry 155, BRAZIL
- V.1, Entry 156, BRECKENRIDGE
- V.1, Entry 157, BROAD SEAL WAR
- V.1, Entry 158, BROKERS
- V.1, Entry 159, BROOKS
- V.1, Entry 160, BROWN
- V.1, Entry 161, BUCHANAN
- V.1, Entry 162, BUCKSHOT WAR
- V.1, Entry 163, BUCKTAILS
- V.1, Entry 164, BUDDHISM
- V.1, Entry 165, BUDGET
- V.1, Entry 166, BULL
- V.1, Entry 167, BUNDESRATH
- V.1, Entry 168, BUREAUCRACY
- V.1, Entry 169, BURGESSES
- V.1, Entry 170, BURLINGAME
- V.1, Entry 171, BURR
- V.1, Entry 172, BUTLER, Benj. F.
- V.1, Entry 173, BUTLER, William Orlando
- V.1, Entry 174, CACHET
- V.1, Entry 175, CÆSARISM
- V.1, Entry 176, CALENDAR
- V.1, Entry 177, CALHOUN
- V.1, Entry 178, CALIFORNIA
- V.1, Entry 179, CANADA
- V.1, Entry 180, CANALS
- V.1, Entry 181, CANON LAW
- V.1, Entry 182, CAPITAL
- V.1, Entry 183, CAPITAL
- V.1, Entry 184, CAPITULATION
- V.1, Entry 185, CARICATURE
- V.1, Entry 186, CARPET BAGGERS
- V.1, Entry 187, CARTEL
- V.1, Entry 188, CASS
- V.1, Entry 189, CASUS BELLI
- V.1, Entry 190, CAUCUS
- V.1, Entry 191, CAUCUS SYSTEM
- V.1, Entry 192, CAUSE AND EFFECT IN POLITICS.
- V.1, Entry 193, CELIBACY, Clerical
- V.1, Entry 194, CELIBACY, Political Aspects of.
- V.1, Entry 195, CELTS.
- V.1, Entry 196, CENSURE.
- V.1, Entry 197, CENSURE OF MORALS.
- V.1, Entry 198, CENSURES
- V.1, Entry 199, CENSUS.
- V.1, Entry 200, CENTRALIZATION and DECENTRALIZATION.
- V.1, Entry 201, CEREMONIAL
- V.1, Entry 202, CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.
- V.1, Entry 203, CHARGÉ D'AFFAIRES.
- V.1, Entry 204, CHARITY, Private.
- V.1, Entry 205, CHARITY, Public.
- V.1, Entry 206, CHARITY, State.
- V.1, Entry 207, CHASE
- V.1, Entry 208, CHECKS AND BALANCES.
- V.1, Entry 209, CHEROKEE CASE
- V.1, Entry 210, CHESAPEAKE CASE.
- V.1, Entry 211, CHILI.
- V.1, Entry 212, CHINA
- V.1, Entry 213, CHINESE IMMIGRATION.
- V.1, Entry 214, CHIVALRY.
- V.1, Entry 215, CHRISTIANITY.
- V.1, Entry 216, CHURCH AND STATE
- V.1, Entry 217, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 218, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 219, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 220, CHURCHES AND RELIGIONS
- V.1, Entry 221, CHURCHES
- V.1, Entry 222, CINCINNATI
- V.1, Entry 223, CIPHER DISPATCHES AND DECIPHERMENT
- V.1, Entry 224, CIRCULATION OF WEALTH.
- V.1, Entry 225, CITIES
- V.1, Entry 226, CITIES AND TOWNS.
- V.1, Entry 227, CIVIL ADMINISTRATION
- V.1, Entry 228, CIVIL LIST.
- V.1, Entry 229, CIVIL RIGHTS BILL
- V.1, Entry 230, CIVIL SERVICE REFORM
- V.1, Entry 231, CIVILIZATION
- V.1, Entry 232, CLAY
- V.1, Entry 233, CLEARING, AND CLEARING HOUSES
- V.1, Entry 234, CLERICALISM
- V.1, Entry 235, CLIENTÈLE AND CUSTOM
- V.1, Entry 236, CLIMATE
- V.1, Entry 237, CLIMATE
- V.1, Entry 238, CLINTON
- V.1, Entry 239, CLINTON, George
- V.1, Entry 240, CL�TURE
- V.1, Entry 241, COASTING TRADE
- V.1, Entry 242, COCHIN CHINA
- V.1, Entry 243, COINAGE
- V.1, Entry 244, COLFAX
- V.1, Entry 245, COLONIZATION SOCIETY
- V.1, Entry 246, COLORADO
- V.1, Entry 247, COLOMBIA
- V.1, Entry 248, COMMERCE.
- V.1, Entry 249, COMMERCIAL CRISES
- V.1, Entry 250, COMMISSION
- V.1, Entry 251, COMMITTEES
- V.1, Entry 252, COMMON LAW
- V.1, Entry 253, COMMONS
- V.1, Entry 254, COMMUNE
- V.1, Entry 255, COMMUNISM
- V.1, Entry 256, COMPETITION.
- V.1, Entry 257, COMPROMISES
- V.1, Entry 258, COMPULSORY CIRCULATION
- V.1, Entry 259, COMPULSORY EDUCATION
- V.1, Entry 260, CONCESSION
- V.1, Entry 261, CONCLAVE.
- V.1, Entry 262, CONCLUSUM
- V.1, Entry 284, CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES
- V.1, Entry 301, CONVENTION
- V.1, Entry 375, DISTILLED SPIRITS
- V.1, Entry 384, DOMINION OF CANADA
- V.2, Entry 7, EDUCATION
- V.2, Entry 18, EMBARGO
- V.2, Entry 33, EXCHANGE
- V.2, Entry 35, EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS
- V.2, Entry 37, EXCHANGE OF WEALTH
- V.2, Entry 121, GREAT BRITAIN
- V.2, Entry 130, HABEAS CORPUS
- V.2, Entry 180, INDUSTRIAL ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION
- V.2, Entry 225, JUSTICE, Department of
- V.2, Entry 246, LAW
- V.2, Entry 364, NEW GRANADA
- V.2, Entry 379, NULLIFICATION
- V.3, Entry 4, OCEANICA
- V.3, Entry 29, PARIS MONETARY CONFERENCE
- V.3, Entry 32, PARLIAMENTARY LAW.
- V.3, Entry 116, RACES OF MANKIND
- V.3, Entry 137, REPUBLICAN PARTY
- V.3, Entry 155, ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.
- V.3, Entry 195, SLAVERY
- V.3, Entry 278, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
- V. 2, List of Writers
- V. 3, List of Writers
- V. 3, List of American Writers
CHILI. This country, under Spanish rule, formed, with the vice-royalties of Granada, Peru, and La Plata, a captaincy general under the authority of an officer having the rank of lieutenant general, president, governor, and captain general of the kingdom of Chili.
—The unhappy events which convulsed Spain during the second half of the reign of the first Napoleon, had already reacted on the American continent when the new spirit crossed the Andes and disturbed Chili. The republic of Chili began its revolution under sad auspices. The first struggle for emancipation was in 1810. On the 18th of September of that year, she declared her independence. Dissatisfaction provoked by electoral questions afforded the three Carrera brothers, young and ambitious debauchees, a pretext for taking an active part in the movement. On the 11th of December, 1811, they dispersed the congress, seized the reins of government, were driven from power, returned to it, and as a result of their rule Chili was almost reduced by the arms of Spain.
—The cause of independence seemed lost when help from an unexpected quarter was obtained, giving it new life and finally insuring its triumph. General San Martin, the real founder of the Chilian republic, hurried from Buenos Ayres with 3,000 men, crossed into Chili in 1817, and restored courage and confidence to all. He reorganized the national army, and defeated the royalists at Chacabuco; was defeated in turn at Canchaarayada, a disaster he soon repaired by the famous battle of Maypo, which he won April 5, 1818. It decided the success of the revolution and assured Chilian independence.
—The new state had to defend itself against the dangers which threatened it from within. It happily surmounted them. In 1821 San Martin had gone northward from Chili to free Peru, of which he had been proclaimed protector, from the Spanish yoke. Generals O’Higgins and Freyre had succeeded him in turn as president. To them succeeded general Pinto, whose elevated mind and travels in Europe had given him a higher reputation in the country. He governed with an ability that assured Chili some years of tranquillity. The country showed its appreciation by re-electing him, but an irregularity in the election furnished the malcontents a pretext for agitation. He allowed himself to be influenced by the counsels of the extreme liberals, and gave to Chili an ultra-democratic constitution. This imprudent course excited violent opposition. The reactionary party, that is what is there called the “moderate” party, had, at its head general Prieto, and among its members the unfortunate Portales. A civil war excited against them, ended in their victory and in the abolition of the constitution.
—In 1838 Chili finally adopted its present constitution, “one of the wisest in America,” says a traveler, “which gives to the government the legal means of enforcing obedience to its commands, and to the country satisfactory guarantees of liberty.” The president is elected for 5 years. Besides the ministry which governs with him, he is assisted by a council of state composed of the ministers, 2 judges, an ecclesiastical dignitary, 2 generals, and a like number of ex-ministers. The legislative power is vested in a senate of 20 members, elected for 9 years, and a triennial house of representatives, consisting of one member for every 20,000 inhabitants. Under the firm rule of general Prieto and of Portales peace was firmly established; habits of order and political wisdom prevailed in the country. Chili began a career of progress which has since been only occasionally interrupted and then for but short periods. The question has been asked, “How did Chili come to have this exceptional history, and what favorable circumstances gave it a destiny so different from that of the other democracies of South America?” Several causes have been assigned for this: First the non-interference of the resident Spanish population, of whom very few took part in the revolutionary struggles, thus guaranteeing their own security and not adding a third party to the two already opposed to each other; the purity of the Creole race, which has very little admixture of Indian blood and preserved its vigor and moral preponderance; the destructive character of that active and serious race who are fond of comparing themselves to the English, and whom a traveler has likened to the Dutch; the depth of Chilian national sentiment, their taste for commerce, and the isolation of the country, which, defended on the east by the chain of the Andes and on the west by the sea, is protected both from the ambition of its neighbors and from its own; and lastly, by the geographical features of the country which does not admit of long wars, and in which every quarrel must be
—After the republic had passed through its period of crises and had nothing to do but to devote itself to the development of its institutions, an unfortunate incident, brought about by the ambition of general Santa Cruz, president of Bolivia, checked its progress for a time. Santa Cruz had united Bolivia and Peru into a confederation of which he was the head. He wished to include Chili, and to further his plan, began by exciting civil war in the country over which he desired to extend his rule. The attempt at insurrection was soon crushed, but Portales was its first victim. Order was reestablished but Chili had lost one of its most distinguished men, the one on whom it based the most legitimate hopes, and who had already done so much for the reformation of its laws and the perfecting of its organization. At the beginning of 1859, however, new storms arose. A party of liberal opposition had been formed. It demanded constitutional reforms and allied itself with its most decided opponents, the reactionary and clerical parties. Although this coalition of extreme parties inspired no confidence in the country, and although, moreover, it was wanting in leaders, it was none the less dangerous. It brought on an armed insurrection. The president took energetic measures. Extraordinary powers were voted him by congress. He usurped the dictatorship which he had the courage and the honor not to abuse. The insurrection was suppressed on the 29th of April at Pemelas, and peace assured.
—The Chilians dreaded the approach of 1861. During the course of the year every branch of the government of the state was to be re-elected. They had to meet at the polls several times during the year; on the 28th of February, to elect members of the house; on the 15th of May, to vote for senators; on the 25th of June, to choose presidential electors, and on the 31st of September the president himself. But all these elections passed off in an orderly and lawful manner.
—While these contests, attended with much excitement but no bloodshed, were going on in the interior, Chili did not neglect its foreign relations. In 1859 a treaty concerning the payment of a certain indemnity which Chili acknowledged that it owed the United States, was signed with that power. At the same time it signed a treaty of navigation and commerce with Belgium, while a similar treaty with Austria was in course of preparation. On the 11th of April it concluded an extradition treaty with France.
—But the good understanding between Chili and the European powers did not last long. In 1864 it espoused the cause of Peru against Spain.
—In the article BOLIVIA the reader will find an account of the manner in which the war between Peru and Spain broke out, and how the republic of Ecuador, Bolivia and Chili came to sign a treaty of alliance, offensive and defensive, with Peru. This alliance was preceded in Chili by active hostilities with Spain, which was irritated at the indirect assistance given to Peru by Chili. Admiral Paréja, commanding the Spanish squadron, declared the coast of Chili blockaded in September, 1865. The Chilian government declared war against Spain and entered into the Peruvian alliance in December.
—The bombardment of Valparaiso has made this war celebrated in Europe. The Chilian squadron had had some success in its engagements with the Spanish vessels, and the United States offered its mediation, which Chili refused. The Spanish admiral Mendez-Nunez gave the Chilian government four days to accept the proposition of the United States, failing which, he threatened to open fire on Valparaiso, an unfortified place, its only battery having been recently dismantled. It was the great entrepôt of all foreign commerce. In vain did the ministers of England, France and the United States represent to the Chilian president the folly of resistance. He was controlled by the press and by public opinion. Both had become excited to such a degree that they would not listen to reason. He was imprudent enough to defy the threat of the Spanish commander, who had the inhumanity to carry it out. March 31, 1866, the bombardment set fire to the custom house buildings which contained $30,000,000 worth of goods. French merchants lost $3,400,000, the English and American $500,000 each, the Chilians $400,000. A portion of the city, valued at $15,000,000, was reduced to ashes.
—The news of the bombardment caused in Europe an indignation that found vent in the English parliament and in the French
corps législatif. But the French and English governments considered the act justified by the necessities of war, and not contrary to the law of nations, so Spain was not asked to make good the loss. Besides, the war with Chili had virtually terminated with the retreat of the Spanish squadron, which had laid siege to Callao unsuccessfully. (See
—The territory of Chili consists of a narrow strip of land running from north to south along the Pacific coast, between 25° and 44° south latitude; and its area is 132,606 English square miles. It possesses, at some distance from its southern coast, the archipelago of Chiloë, and it claims authority over a much vaster extent of territory which belongs to Patagonia, and which, added to Chili, would double its area. But its authority over the territory situated between 37° and 42° south latitude. beyond the river Biobio, seems to be nominal. The inhabitants of this region, the Araucanian Indians, are independent in the strict sense of the word. Chili is bounded on the north by the desert of Atacama, belonging to Bolivia; on the east by the Argentine republic and Patagonia, separated from them by the chain of the Andes; on the south also by Patagonia; and on the west by the Pacific ocean. Its rivers, the Rio Maypo, the Maule and the Rio Biobio, are of little importance. The climate, as a general thing, is mild and healthy; but this advantage is offset in a terrible manner by the earthquakes
to which Chili is subject, perhaps more than any other country, especially on the coast. The country is divided into 16 provinces. The provinces are, Atacama, Angel, Aranco, Coquimbo, Aconcagua, Santiago, Colchagua, Valparaiso, Talca, Maule, Nuble, Concepcion, Valdivia, Chiloë, Llanquihue, Linares, Curico. Santiago is the capital of the whole republic, with a population of 129,807 (1875). Valparaiso, the commercial and business centre, is the most important city. Its population in 1875, was 97,775.
—The population of Chili, estimated at 240,000 in 1764, and placed at 600,000 in 1825 by an English traveler, reached 1,080,000 in 1843. In 1857 it was 1,465,492; in 1868, 1,908,340; and in 1875, 2,283,568. We here speak almost exclusively of the population north of the Biobio, where there is very little admixture of negroes and Indians. South of that river there are hardly any other inhabitants than members of the Araucanian tribe. Their number in 1790 was estimated to be 70,000.
—Education is with the Chilian government an object of great and legitimate solicitude. Santiago has a university which has founded five colleges; among them the national institute, and the institute of Coquimbo. Santiago has also private educational institutions. More than two thousand young men attended the state colleges in 1860. The private colleges are 50 in number, 26 for boys and 24 for girls. The former was attended by about 6,000 scholars, the latter by about 2,000 pupils. There were 477 primary schools; 329 for boys, 23 for adults, and 125 for girls; 2,000 pupils of both sexes attended them, while the 84 municipal schools had 4,500 pupils. In 1867 there were 993 primary schools, with 50,877 pupils.
—The Chilian government seems to neglect no opportunity to develop the elements of prosperity in the country. Important reforms have been introduced in the civil and criminal codes, also in the administration of justice, for which tribunals of first resort, three courts of appeal and one supreme court, are provided. Railways are being built, and in 1860 80 kilomètres of railway were already in operation and had carried nearly 300,000 passengers. In 1871 the total length of railway lines was about 761 kilomètres. There are telegraph lines from Valparaiso to Santiago, and from the latter place to Talca, over 750 kilomètres in length. 2,650 miles of telegraph were in operation in 1878. The use of the decimal system, decreed in 1848, for measures of length and volume, was to be enforced during the course of the year 1860. The military spirit is not very prevalent in Chili, and has not had the pernicious influence there that it exerted in the other South American republics. The regular army, consisting of a few battalions of infantry and some squadrons of cavalry, does not reach the number of 5,200 men. The national guard, however, is well organized. It numbers 50,000 men. The navy consists of 6 steamers, with 40 guns and 400 men.
—From 1825 until 1832 the average revenue of the republic did not exceed $1,700,000 per annum, and the expenditure was in excess of the receipts. In 1851 the expenses amounted to more than $4,700,000, while the receipts in 1852 were only about $4,430,000. The budget of 1853 nearly restored the balance of the two parts which composed it. The receipts appeared in it as 6,419,000 piasters, and the expenditures as 6,336,000 piasters. In 1871 the receipts were 11,550,000 piasters, and the expenditures 12,542,000 piasters. The principal source of revenue was the customs duties, which amounted to more than 4,000,000 piasters. In 1878 the revenue of Chili amounted to 20,443,977 pesos, and its expenditure to 21,375,728. At the end of the same year the total debt, internal and foreign, was 63,397,022 pesos.
—In 1879, on the outbreak of war with Peru and Bolivia, Chili had 22,000 men under arms. The navy consisted of 10 steamers, of 120 to 300 horse power, and 2 ironclads.
—Metals form an important part of the mineral wealth of Peru. Spangles of gold are found at the bottom of some of its rivers. It contains silver mines, and especially copper mines. In 1856 the yield of fine gold and silver amounted to 529,000 piasters, in 1857 to about 1,100,000 piasters, and in 1858 to 1,000,000 piasters. But Chili is, above all, an agricultural country. Besides the precious metals it exports grain and lumber. The most fruitful source of its industrial wealth is the vast extent of its pasture lands, in the midst of which may sometimes be seen a herd of 10 or 20,000 head of stock belonging to one man. In 1856 the imports amounted to 99,000,000 francs, and the exports to 90,800,000 francs, or 189,800,000 altogether. The principal countries which fed this commerce figured in the following order: Imports—England, 34,500,000 francs; France, 21,300,000; the United States, 12,100,000; Germany, 9,600,000. Exports—England, 41,500,000 francs; the United States, 15,500,000; Peru, 11,900,000; France, 7,000,000. The whole foreign commerce of Chili in 1869 amounted to 291,235,000 francs, of which, 144,319,000 were for imports and 146,916,000 for exports. Adding the coasting trade the grand total foots up 524,806,000 francs. During the year 1856 2,602 vessels, Chilian or foreign, entered Chilian ports, and 2,568 cleared for other ports: total, 5,170. England ranks first, with 1,156 ships; the United States follow, with 475; France only holds the fifth rank, with 122. In 1867 arrivals and departures were as follows: arrivals, 3,553 vessels, registering 1,723,617 tons; departures, 3,334 vessels representing 1,680,868; total, 6,877 vessels, and 3,374,485 tons. England retained her first rank, with 1,073 vessels; the United States came next, with 665; France had fallen back to the sixth rank, with 148 ships. The intermediate ranks were held by the Hanseatic cities, San Salvador and Italy.
The Progress and Actual Condition of Chile, by G. Rose Innes, London, 1875;
Historia General de el Reyno de Chile, by R. P. Diego de Rosales, Valparaiso, 1877-8.