Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States
By John J. Lalor
NEITHER American nor English literature has hitherto possessed a Cyclopædia of Political Science and Political Economy. The want of a work of reference on these important branches of knowledge has long been felt, especially by lawyers, journalists, members of our state and national legislatures, and the large and intelligent class of capitalists and business men who give serious thought to the political and social questions of the day. The present work, which will be completed in three volumes, is the first to supply that want. It is also the first Political History of the United States in encyclopædic form—the first to which the reader can refer for an account of the important events or facts in our political history, as he would to a dictionary for the precise meaning of a word. The French, the Germans and even the Italians are richer in works of reference on political science and political economy than the Americans or the English. The Germans have Rotteck and Welcker’s
Staatslexikon, and Bluntschli and Brater’s
Staatswörterbuch; the French, Block’s
Dictionnaire Général de la Politique, and the celebrated
Dictionnaire de l’Economie Politique, edited by Guillaumin and Coquelin.The “Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and of the Political History of the United States” is intended to be to the American and English reader what the above-named works are to French and German students of political science and political economy. The articles by foreigners in our work are largely translations from the
Dictionnaire de l’Economie Politique, the
Dictionnaire Général de la Politique, the
Staatswörterbuch, and original articles by Mr. T. E. Cliffe Leslie, the eminent English economist; while the American articles are by the best American and Canadian writers on political economy and political science. The task of writing the articles on the political history of the United States was confided to one person, Mr. Alexander Johnston, of Norwalk, Connecticut, thoroughness, conciseness and the absence of repetition and of redundancy being thus secured…. [From the Preface]
First Pub. Date
New York: Maynard, Merrill, and Co.
Originally printed in 3 volumes. Includes articles by Frédéric Bastiat, Gustave de Molinari, Henry George, J. B. Say, Francis A. Walker, and more.
The text of this edition is in the public domain.
- V.1, Entry 1, ABDICATION
- V.1, Entry 2, ABOLITION AND ABOLITIONISTS
- V.1, Entry 3, ABSENTEEISM
- V.1, Entry 4, ABSOLUTE POWER
- V.1, Entry 5, ABSOLUTISM
- V.1, Entry 6, ABSTENTION
- V.1, Entry 7, ABUSES IN POLITICS
- V.1, Entry 8, ABYSSINIA
- V.1, Entry 9, ACADEMIES
- V.1, Entry 10, ACADEMIES
- V.1, Entry 11, ACCLAMATION
- V.1, Entry 12, ACCUMULATION OF WEALTH
- V.1, Entry 13, ACT
- V.1, Entry 14, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 15, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 16, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 17, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 18, ADJOURNMENT
- V.1, Entry 19, ADMINISTRATION
- V.1, Entry 20, ADMINISTRATIONS
- V.1, Entry 21, AFRICA
- V.1, Entry 22, AGE
- V.1, Entry 23, AGENT
- V.1, Entry 24, AGENTS
- V.1, Entry 25, AGIO
- V.1, Entry 26, AGIOTAGE
- V.1, Entry 27, AGRICULTURE
- V.1, Entry 28, ALABAMA
- V.1, Entry 29, ALABAMA CLAIMS
- V.1, Entry 30, ALASKA
- V.1, Entry 31, ALBANY PLAN OF UNION
- V.1, Entry 32, ALBANY REGENCY
- V.1, Entry 33, ALCALDE
- V.1, Entry 34, ALCOHOL
- V.1, Entry 35, ALGERIA
- V.1, Entry 36, ALGERINE WAR
- V.1, Entry 37, ALIEN AND SEDITION LAWS
- V.1, Entry 38, ALIENS
- V.1, Entry 39, ALLEGIANCE
- V.1, Entry 40, ALLEGIANCE
- V.1, Entry 41, ALLIANCE
- V.1, Entry 42, ALLIANCE
- V.1, Entry 43, ALLOYAGE
- V.1, Entry 44, ALMANACH DE GOTHA
- V.1, Entry 45, ALSACE-LORRAINE
- V.1, Entry 46, AMBASSADOR
- V.1, Entry 47, AMBITION
- V.1, Entry 48, AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
- V.1, Entry 49, AMERICA
- V.1, Entry 50, AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE
- V.1, Entry 51, AMERICAN PARTY
- V.1, Entry 52, AMERICAN WHIGS
- V.1, Entry 53, AMES
- V.1, Entry 54, AMISTAD CASE
- V.1, Entry 55, AMNESTY
- V.1, Entry 56, AMNESTY
- V.1, Entry 57, ANAM
- V.1, Entry 58, ANARCHY
- V.1, Entry 59, ANCIEN RÉGIME
- V.1, Entry 60, ANDORRA
- V.1, Entry 61, ANHALT
- V.1, Entry 62, ANNEXATION
- V.1, Entry 63, ANNEXATIONS
- V.1, Entry 64, ANTI-FEDERAL PARTY
- V.1, Entry 65, ANTI-MASONRY
- V.1, Entry 66, ANTI-NEBRASKA MEN
- V.1, Entry 67, ANTI-RENTERS
- V.1, Entry 68, ANTI-SLAVERY.
- V.1, Entry 69, APPORTIONMENT
- V.1, Entry 70, APPROPRIATION.
- V.1, Entry 71, APPROPRIATIONS
- V.1, Entry 72, ARBITRAGE
- V.1, Entry 73, ARBITRARY ARRESTS
- V.1, Entry 74, ARBITRARY POWER
- V.1, Entry 75, ARBITRATION
- V.1, Entry 76, ARCHONS
- V.1, Entry 77, AREOPAGUS.
- V.1, Entry 78, ARGENTINE CONFEDERATION
- V.1, Entry 79, ARISTOCRACY.
- V.1, Entry 80, ARISTOCRATIC AND DEMOCRATIC IDEAS.
- V.1, Entry 81, ARITHMETIC
- V.1, Entry 82, ARIZONA
- V.1, Entry 83, ARKANSAS
- V.1, Entry 84, ARMISTICE
- V.1, Entry 85, ARMIES
- V.1, Entry 86, ARMY
- V.1, Entry 87, ARTHUR
- V.1, Entry 88, ARTISANS
- V.1, Entry 89, ARYAN RACES.
- V.1, Entry 90, ASIA
- V.1, Entry 91, ASSEMBLY (IN U. S. HISTORY)
- V.1, Entry 92, ASSESSMENTS
- V.1, Entry 93, ASSIGNATS
- V.1, Entry 94, ASSOCIATION AND ASSOCIATIONS
- V.1, Entry 95, ASYLUM
- V.1, Entry 96, ATELIERS NATIONAUX
- V.1, Entry 97, ATTAINDER
- V.1, Entry 98, ATTORNEYS GENERAL
- V.1, Entry 99, AUSTRALIA
- V.1, Entry 100, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
- V.1, Entry 101, AUTHORITY
- V.1, Entry 102, AUTHORS
- V.1, Entry 103, AUTOCRAT
- V.1, Entry 104, AUTONOMY.
- V.1, Entry 105, AYES AND NOES
- V.1, Entry 106, BADEN
- V.1, Entry 107, BALANCE OF POWER
- V.1, Entry 108, BALANCE OF TRADE
- V.1, Entry 109, BALLOT
- V.1, Entry 110, BANK CONTROVERSIES
- V.1, Entry 111, BANKING
- V.1, Entry 112, BANK NOTES.
- V.1, Entry 113, BANKRUPTCY.
- V.1, Entry 114, BANKRUPTCY, National.
- V.1, Entry 115, BANKS.
- V.1, Entry 116, BANKS, Functions of.
- V.1, Entry 117, BANKS OF ISSUE
- V.1, Entry 118, BANKS, Advantages of Savings.
- V.1, Entry 119, BANKS, History and Management of Savings,
- V.1, Entry 120, BAR
- V.1, Entry 121, BARNBURNERS
- V.1, Entry 122, BARRICADE
- V.1, Entry 123, BARTER.
- V.1, Entry 124, BASTILLE
- V.1, Entry 125, BAVARIA
- V.1, Entry 126, BELGIUM
- V.1, Entry 127, BELL
- V.1, Entry 128, BELLIGERENTS
- V.1, Entry 129, BENTON
- V.1, Entry 130, BERLIN DECREE
- V.1, Entry 131, BILL
- V.1, Entry 132, BILL OF EXCHANGE
- V.1, Entry 133, BILL OF RIGHTS
- V.1, Entry 134, BILLION
- V.1, Entry 135, BILLS
- V.1, Entry 136, BI-METALLISM.
- V.1, Entry 137, BIRNEY
- V.1, Entry 138, BLACK COCKADE
- V.1, Entry 139, BLACK CODE.
- V.1, Entry 140, BLACK REPUBLICAN.
- V.1, Entry 141, BLAINE
- V.1, Entry 142, BLAIR
- V.1, Entry 143, BLOCKADE
- V.1, Entry 144, BLOODY BILL
- V.1, Entry 145, BLUE LAWS
- V.1, Entry 146, BLUE LIGHT
- V.1, Entry 147, BOARD OF TRADE.
- V.1, Entry 148, BOLIVIA
- V.1, Entry 149, BOOTY
- V.1, Entry 150, BORDER RUFFIANS
- V.1, Entry 151, BORDER STATES
- V.1, Entry 152, BOURGEOISIE
- V.1, Entry 153, BOUTWELL
- V.1, Entry 154, BRAHMANISM.
- V.1, Entry 155, BRAZIL
- V.1, Entry 156, BRECKENRIDGE
- V.1, Entry 157, BROAD SEAL WAR
- V.1, Entry 158, BROKERS
- V.1, Entry 159, BROOKS
- V.1, Entry 160, BROWN
- V.1, Entry 161, BUCHANAN
- V.1, Entry 162, BUCKSHOT WAR
- V.1, Entry 163, BUCKTAILS
- V.1, Entry 164, BUDDHISM
- V.1, Entry 165, BUDGET
- V.1, Entry 166, BULL
- V.1, Entry 167, BUNDESRATH
- V.1, Entry 168, BUREAUCRACY
- V.1, Entry 169, BURGESSES
- V.1, Entry 170, BURLINGAME
- V.1, Entry 171, BURR
- V.1, Entry 172, BUTLER, Benj. F.
- V.1, Entry 173, BUTLER, William Orlando
- V.1, Entry 174, CACHET
- V.1, Entry 175, CÆSARISM
- V.1, Entry 176, CALENDAR
- V.1, Entry 177, CALHOUN
- V.1, Entry 178, CALIFORNIA
- V.1, Entry 179, CANADA
- V.1, Entry 180, CANALS
- V.1, Entry 181, CANON LAW
- V.1, Entry 182, CAPITAL
- V.1, Entry 183, CAPITAL
- V.1, Entry 184, CAPITULATION
- V.1, Entry 185, CARICATURE
- V.1, Entry 186, CARPET BAGGERS
- V.1, Entry 187, CARTEL
- V.1, Entry 188, CASS
- V.1, Entry 189, CASUS BELLI
- V.1, Entry 190, CAUCUS
- V.1, Entry 191, CAUCUS SYSTEM
- V.1, Entry 192, CAUSE AND EFFECT IN POLITICS.
- V.1, Entry 193, CELIBACY, Clerical
- V.1, Entry 194, CELIBACY, Political Aspects of.
- V.1, Entry 195, CELTS.
- V.1, Entry 196, CENSURE.
- V.1, Entry 197, CENSURE OF MORALS.
- V.1, Entry 198, CENSURES
- V.1, Entry 199, CENSUS.
- V.1, Entry 200, CENTRALIZATION and DECENTRALIZATION.
- V.1, Entry 201, CEREMONIAL
- V.1, Entry 202, CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.
- V.1, Entry 203, CHARGÉ D'AFFAIRES.
- V.1, Entry 204, CHARITY, Private.
- V.1, Entry 205, CHARITY, Public.
- V.1, Entry 206, CHARITY, State.
- V.1, Entry 207, CHASE
- V.1, Entry 208, CHECKS AND BALANCES.
- V.1, Entry 209, CHEROKEE CASE
- V.1, Entry 210, CHESAPEAKE CASE.
- V.1, Entry 211, CHILI.
- V.1, Entry 212, CHINA
- V.1, Entry 213, CHINESE IMMIGRATION.
- V.1, Entry 214, CHIVALRY.
- V.1, Entry 215, CHRISTIANITY.
- V.1, Entry 216, CHURCH AND STATE
- V.1, Entry 217, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 218, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 219, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 220, CHURCHES AND RELIGIONS
- V.1, Entry 221, CHURCHES
- V.1, Entry 222, CINCINNATI
- V.1, Entry 223, CIPHER DISPATCHES AND DECIPHERMENT
- V.1, Entry 224, CIRCULATION OF WEALTH.
- V.1, Entry 225, CITIES
- V.1, Entry 226, CITIES AND TOWNS.
- V.1, Entry 227, CIVIL ADMINISTRATION
- V.1, Entry 228, CIVIL LIST.
- V.1, Entry 229, CIVIL RIGHTS BILL
- V.1, Entry 230, CIVIL SERVICE REFORM
- V.1, Entry 231, CIVILIZATION
- V.1, Entry 232, CLAY
- V.1, Entry 233, CLEARING, AND CLEARING HOUSES
- V.1, Entry 234, CLERICALISM
- V.1, Entry 235, CLIENTÈLE AND CUSTOM
- V.1, Entry 236, CLIMATE
- V.1, Entry 237, CLIMATE
- V.1, Entry 238, CLINTON
- V.1, Entry 239, CLINTON, George
- V.1, Entry 240, CL�TURE
- V.1, Entry 241, COASTING TRADE
- V.1, Entry 242, COCHIN CHINA
- V.1, Entry 243, COINAGE
- V.1, Entry 244, COLFAX
- V.1, Entry 245, COLONIZATION SOCIETY
- V.1, Entry 246, COLORADO
- V.1, Entry 247, COLOMBIA
- V.1, Entry 248, COMMERCE.
- V.1, Entry 249, COMMERCIAL CRISES
- V.1, Entry 250, COMMISSION
- V.1, Entry 251, COMMITTEES
- V.1, Entry 252, COMMON LAW
- V.1, Entry 253, COMMONS
- V.1, Entry 254, COMMUNE
- V.1, Entry 255, COMMUNISM
- V.1, Entry 256, COMPETITION.
- V.1, Entry 257, COMPROMISES
- V.1, Entry 258, COMPULSORY CIRCULATION
- V.1, Entry 259, COMPULSORY EDUCATION
- V.1, Entry 260, CONCESSION
- V.1, Entry 261, CONCLAVE.
- V.1, Entry 262, CONCLUSUM
- V.1, Entry 284, CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES
- V.1, Entry 301, CONVENTION
- V.1, Entry 375, DISTILLED SPIRITS
- V.1, Entry 384, DOMINION OF CANADA
- V.2, Entry 7, EDUCATION
- V.2, Entry 18, EMBARGO
- V.2, Entry 33, EXCHANGE
- V.2, Entry 35, EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS
- V.2, Entry 37, EXCHANGE OF WEALTH
- V.2, Entry 121, GREAT BRITAIN
- V.2, Entry 130, HABEAS CORPUS
- V.2, Entry 180, INDUSTRIAL ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION
- V.2, Entry 225, JUSTICE, Department of
- V.2, Entry 246, LAW
- V.2, Entry 364, NEW GRANADA
- V.2, Entry 379, NULLIFICATION
- V.3, Entry 4, OCEANICA
- V.3, Entry 29, PARIS MONETARY CONFERENCE
- V.3, Entry 32, PARLIAMENTARY LAW.
- V.3, Entry 116, RACES OF MANKIND
- V.3, Entry 137, REPUBLICAN PARTY
- V.3, Entry 155, ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.
- V.3, Entry 195, SLAVERY
- V.3, Entry 278, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
- V. 2, List of Writers
- V. 3, List of Writers
- V. 3, List of American Writers
CLIMATE. We have, after a struggle of thousands of years, broken away from the ancient belief in fatalism. Inexorable fate has been laid in the quiet graveyard of human institutions. When the European hears the eastern fatalist murmur his formula of blind submission to “that which was written,” he smiles, and congratulates himself on having been born after Voltaire’s time. But this does not prevent the same European from admitting that the laws which govern matter govern man; that the Oriental is, was, and will be, a polygamist; that for many reasons, excellent in themselves, southern nations will always be governed by arbitrary rulers, while republicanism will flourish in the north. The European rests his argument on the authority of the “spirit of laws.” The more he rejects religious fatalism, the more likely he is to accept, at least in theory the doctrine of the materially inevitable.
—It is, indeed, true that climate exercises on organic and inorganic bodies an influence extending even to man, whom it modifies from the physical, the moral and the intellectual points of view. For our vices and our virtues, our weakness and our strength, are so closely connected with our physical constitution, that one can not be altered without change or modification of the other. Climatology, notwithstanding the numerous and noteworthy treatises written on it, is still in its infancy. It is so many sided; its points of contact with other subjects are so numerous; facts so often refute theories which had been constructed with the greatest labor, that the synthesis of the science can not be formulated. The reader must not expect here a treatise on climatology. He will find the subject treated ably and at length in the works of Humboldt, Michel Lévy, Toissac, Virey and Wilson.
—Our business is only to consider
to what extent climate influences political institutions; which is equivalent to asking, “can man break the chain that binds him to the soil; or does the fact of his being born within a certain degree of latitude necessarily and definitively limit his social condition?” In other words, the object of research is the relation of climatology to sociology. Let us confine ourselves to facts. Humboldt, who by the study of the isotherms laid the true foundation of climatology, defines this science as “The aggregate of all those atmospheric modifications which sensibly affect our organs of sense, such as temperature; moisture; the variations of barometric pressure; the stillness of the air; the effect of the winds; purity of the air, or its admixture with more or less unhealthy gaseous exhalations; the degree of usual diaphaneity, the brightness of the sky, so important in its influence, not only on the fertility of the soil, the development of organic tissues in plants, and the ripening of fruits, but also in its effect on the aggregate of the moral sensations which men feel and which differ from day to day.”
—Climate exercises a direct influence on the moral and physical characteristics of the individual, by the necessities to which it subjects him, the habits it gives rise to, and the advantages it procures him. Vegetius expressed this fact when he wrote
Et plaga coeli non solum ad robur corporum, sed etiam animorum facit. (Climate contributes not only to the strength of the body, but to that of the mind.) Before him, Hippocrates, in his treatise on water and air, noticed the influence of climate on the character of nations, and therefore on their destiny. Modern science has not belied this testimony. Its classification of climates, and the different moral and physical effects which they cause are the following. We, of course, concern ourselves with the greater divisions.
—Climates are: the warm, temperate, or cold. The inhabitant of the north is generally tall and strong.
*62 His fine, white skin reveals the color of the blood circulating beneath it. The severity of the work which imperative necessity compels him to perform involves a considerable expenditure of force. The need he feels of restoring his strength when exhausted, engenders material appetites. As, in cold countries, labor is the prime condition of existence, the love of gain and the means of satisfying man’s many wants, is almost universal. The sexual appetite is developed only late. The individual, whose entire activity is taken up in the production of wealth, finds in woman an assistant and a companion. In making her a participant in his labors he learns to consider her his equal. Besides, woman here grows old at about the same rate as man. Monogamy is the rule. The slowness of organic functions explains the longevity of the inhabitants of northern countries. Their leading mental characteristics are thoughtfulness and precision. They must have invented the mechanical sciences and been the first to apply them.
—In warm climates, on the contrary, man is small in stature, and his muscular development not great. The relaxation of the tissues gives rise to apathy. The earth produces without toil, the wherewithal to satisfy his hunger and thirst. There is no struggle with material obstacles, and hence no industry. Man seems to follow nature in its prodigious fecundity. Sexual desire is developed early and reaches a degree of violence unknown elsewhere. Woman’s consent is not asked there. Rather is she overpowered; she becomes an instrument of pleasure, and the number of wives may be increased at will. Woman is nothing; man is everything. The foundation of the family is paternal tyranny. The ignorance maintained in the family circle gives rise to superstition in society. People live fast, and die young. In southern climates the activity of the passions takes the place of the physical activity of men of the north.
—If we are to believe the learned Mr. Virey, who expatiates, not without a certain complacency, on the advantages and merits of the climate of Europe, the temperate zones are most favored. We quote his exact words: “In the temperate climate, the happy equilibrium of muscular vigor and nervous activity has united in the same people the gifts of body and of mind. In countries where such a climate exists, courage has been able to ally itself to moral sensibility, mental culture and the fine arts have not excluded warlike ardor and physical training. The base flattery, perfidy and servility of the south are as much abhorred as the ferocity, rudeness and outrageous excesses of the arrogant and reckless north. Delicacy of sentiment is associated with masculine energy. The mind takes a bolder flight. The arts and sciences give to the nations that cultivate them an immense superiority over all other nations. Puberty not so early developed as in the south, nor so late as in the north, evokes the most delicate feelings of love, without exaggerating or weakening them.”
—These are the main physiognomical features of the inhabitants of the different climates. We must not, however, lose sight of the fact that man comes into the world with certain idiosyncrasies, which explains how the inhabitants of the same climate vary so much in character. It is clear that certain faculties are developed more especially under the influence of certain climates. Manners and customs which are nothing but the frequently repeated exercise of the faculties peculiar to a certain aggregation of men, must certainly feel the influence of climate. Religious forms, if not religious faiths, depend on manners and customs, as manners and customs depend on climate. For, as Voltaire tells us, “the lawgiver to whom the Indians listened when he bade them bathe in the Ganges, would have been badly received if he had given a similar command to the inhabitants of the Arctic regions.” Voltaire says further: “Climate has some influence; government a hundred times more; religion, united to government, more still.”
Jean Bodin, who led the way in the fifth book of his “Republic,” came Montesquieu, who does not hesitate to make climate the sole cause of all the effects which, in any way, influence mankind. This theory would tend to deprive man of all moral freedom.
—The north has scarcely any fauna. Vegetation breaks with difficulty its prison of ice and snow. Domestic animals are rare, and their species are but few. Here, according to Montesquieu, man, whose wants as above mentioned, are in inverse ratio to the resources at his command, attempts to obtain what he is in need of by the integral development of his activity.
—In the south the fertility of the soil fatally entails the dependence of the race as a consequence. Tyranny prospers in fertile lands, while other countries, by the same law, select the form of government best suited to their needs. Montesquieu’s theory, violently combated at the time of its first appearance, has found more convincing opponents among the moderns to whom the advance in the arts and sciences has furnished many serious arguments. Mr. E. Toissac, while recognizing the influence of climate on national character, thinks that Montesquieu, in maintaining absolutely that a positive relation exists between climatology and forms of government, did not sufficiently take into consideration the teachings of history. Besides, events which have occurred since the death of that great writer have completely overturned his theory. Mr. Toissac calls our attention to the fact that in little sequestered Europe every form of government has found a place. Greece, where the climate has not changed, has very much modified its institutions. Turkey has a government almost identical with that of Russia, and yet it is situated in the same latitude as Greece, Italy or Spain. “Forms of government,” says Mr. Toissac, in conclusion, “seem to depend more or less on the degree of enlightenment in a nation. Therefore, to dispel ignorance is to destroy despotism; to enthrone intellect is to establish the rule of liberty and law.”
—We think that man, whatever latitude he may be born in, whatever be the color of his skin, is advancing toward a goal that recedes and grows greater as man advances toward it, to wit, physical and intellectual liberty. In some places he goes on step by step, scarcely ever stopping or looking back. He is working out the problem of his own development. In another degree of latitude man goes forward with great bounds, remains stationary for long periods, and then advances again. We believe that climate determines the nature of man’s advance, but not the goal which is the object of his aims. Material progress, which we can not think of as separate from intellectual progress, is a means of emancipation from first influences. Again we say, it does not show us the goal, but it traces out the road, removes the obstacles, fills the ravine, and unites ocean to ocean. Is it necessary for us to call attention to the extent to which machinery, railways, and electricity, have already, in many places, lessened the influence of climate?
—As regards forms of government, which are in themselves but means to hasten or retard the progress of nations, experience shows us that climate has but a meagre influence on them. In all the countries of the world those in authority seek to extend the limits of their authority, while the governed strain every nerve to conquer freedom. Cold has no more to do with it than heat. The matter must be decided between the principle of authority and the principle of liberty. (See