Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States
By John J. Lalor
NEITHER American nor English literature has hitherto possessed a Cyclopædia of Political Science and Political Economy. The want of a work of reference on these important branches of knowledge has long been felt, especially by lawyers, journalists, members of our state and national legislatures, and the large and intelligent class of capitalists and business men who give serious thought to the political and social questions of the day. The present work, which will be completed in three volumes, is the first to supply that want. It is also the first Political History of the United States in encyclopædic form—the first to which the reader can refer for an account of the important events or facts in our political history, as he would to a dictionary for the precise meaning of a word. The French, the Germans and even the Italians are richer in works of reference on political science and political economy than the Americans or the English. The Germans have Rotteck and Welcker’s
Staatslexikon, and Bluntschli and Brater’s
Staatswörterbuch; the French, Block’s
Dictionnaire Général de la Politique, and the celebrated
Dictionnaire de l’Economie Politique, edited by Guillaumin and Coquelin.The “Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and of the Political History of the United States” is intended to be to the American and English reader what the above-named works are to French and German students of political science and political economy. The articles by foreigners in our work are largely translations from the
Dictionnaire de l’Economie Politique, the
Dictionnaire Général de la Politique, the
Staatswörterbuch, and original articles by Mr. T. E. Cliffe Leslie, the eminent English economist; while the American articles are by the best American and Canadian writers on political economy and political science. The task of writing the articles on the political history of the United States was confided to one person, Mr. Alexander Johnston, of Norwalk, Connecticut, thoroughness, conciseness and the absence of repetition and of redundancy being thus secured…. [From the Preface]
First Pub. Date
New York: Maynard, Merrill, and Co.
Originally printed in 3 volumes. Includes articles by Frédéric Bastiat, Gustave de Molinari, Henry George, J. B. Say, Francis A. Walker, and more.
The text of this edition is in the public domain.
- V.1, Entry 1, ABDICATION
- V.1, Entry 2, ABOLITION AND ABOLITIONISTS
- V.1, Entry 3, ABSENTEEISM
- V.1, Entry 4, ABSOLUTE POWER
- V.1, Entry 5, ABSOLUTISM
- V.1, Entry 6, ABSTENTION
- V.1, Entry 7, ABUSES IN POLITICS
- V.1, Entry 8, ABYSSINIA
- V.1, Entry 9, ACADEMIES
- V.1, Entry 10, ACADEMIES
- V.1, Entry 11, ACCLAMATION
- V.1, Entry 12, ACCUMULATION OF WEALTH
- V.1, Entry 13, ACT
- V.1, Entry 14, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 15, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 16, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 17, ADAMS
- V.1, Entry 18, ADJOURNMENT
- V.1, Entry 19, ADMINISTRATION
- V.1, Entry 20, ADMINISTRATIONS
- V.1, Entry 21, AFRICA
- V.1, Entry 22, AGE
- V.1, Entry 23, AGENT
- V.1, Entry 24, AGENTS
- V.1, Entry 25, AGIO
- V.1, Entry 26, AGIOTAGE
- V.1, Entry 27, AGRICULTURE
- V.1, Entry 28, ALABAMA
- V.1, Entry 29, ALABAMA CLAIMS
- V.1, Entry 30, ALASKA
- V.1, Entry 31, ALBANY PLAN OF UNION
- V.1, Entry 32, ALBANY REGENCY
- V.1, Entry 33, ALCALDE
- V.1, Entry 34, ALCOHOL
- V.1, Entry 35, ALGERIA
- V.1, Entry 36, ALGERINE WAR
- V.1, Entry 37, ALIEN AND SEDITION LAWS
- V.1, Entry 38, ALIENS
- V.1, Entry 39, ALLEGIANCE
- V.1, Entry 40, ALLEGIANCE
- V.1, Entry 41, ALLIANCE
- V.1, Entry 42, ALLIANCE
- V.1, Entry 43, ALLOYAGE
- V.1, Entry 44, ALMANACH DE GOTHA
- V.1, Entry 45, ALSACE-LORRAINE
- V.1, Entry 46, AMBASSADOR
- V.1, Entry 47, AMBITION
- V.1, Entry 48, AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
- V.1, Entry 49, AMERICA
- V.1, Entry 50, AMERICAN MERCHANT MARINE
- V.1, Entry 51, AMERICAN PARTY
- V.1, Entry 52, AMERICAN WHIGS
- V.1, Entry 53, AMES
- V.1, Entry 54, AMISTAD CASE
- V.1, Entry 55, AMNESTY
- V.1, Entry 56, AMNESTY
- V.1, Entry 57, ANAM
- V.1, Entry 58, ANARCHY
- V.1, Entry 59, ANCIEN RÉGIME
- V.1, Entry 60, ANDORRA
- V.1, Entry 61, ANHALT
- V.1, Entry 62, ANNEXATION
- V.1, Entry 63, ANNEXATIONS
- V.1, Entry 64, ANTI-FEDERAL PARTY
- V.1, Entry 65, ANTI-MASONRY
- V.1, Entry 66, ANTI-NEBRASKA MEN
- V.1, Entry 67, ANTI-RENTERS
- V.1, Entry 68, ANTI-SLAVERY.
- V.1, Entry 69, APPORTIONMENT
- V.1, Entry 70, APPROPRIATION.
- V.1, Entry 71, APPROPRIATIONS
- V.1, Entry 72, ARBITRAGE
- V.1, Entry 73, ARBITRARY ARRESTS
- V.1, Entry 74, ARBITRARY POWER
- V.1, Entry 75, ARBITRATION
- V.1, Entry 76, ARCHONS
- V.1, Entry 77, AREOPAGUS.
- V.1, Entry 78, ARGENTINE CONFEDERATION
- V.1, Entry 79, ARISTOCRACY.
- V.1, Entry 80, ARISTOCRATIC AND DEMOCRATIC IDEAS.
- V.1, Entry 81, ARITHMETIC
- V.1, Entry 82, ARIZONA
- V.1, Entry 83, ARKANSAS
- V.1, Entry 84, ARMISTICE
- V.1, Entry 85, ARMIES
- V.1, Entry 86, ARMY
- V.1, Entry 87, ARTHUR
- V.1, Entry 88, ARTISANS
- V.1, Entry 89, ARYAN RACES.
- V.1, Entry 90, ASIA
- V.1, Entry 91, ASSEMBLY (IN U. S. HISTORY)
- V.1, Entry 92, ASSESSMENTS
- V.1, Entry 93, ASSIGNATS
- V.1, Entry 94, ASSOCIATION AND ASSOCIATIONS
- V.1, Entry 95, ASYLUM
- V.1, Entry 96, ATELIERS NATIONAUX
- V.1, Entry 97, ATTAINDER
- V.1, Entry 98, ATTORNEYS GENERAL
- V.1, Entry 99, AUSTRALIA
- V.1, Entry 100, AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
- V.1, Entry 101, AUTHORITY
- V.1, Entry 102, AUTHORS
- V.1, Entry 103, AUTOCRAT
- V.1, Entry 104, AUTONOMY.
- V.1, Entry 105, AYES AND NOES
- V.1, Entry 106, BADEN
- V.1, Entry 107, BALANCE OF POWER
- V.1, Entry 108, BALANCE OF TRADE
- V.1, Entry 109, BALLOT
- V.1, Entry 110, BANK CONTROVERSIES
- V.1, Entry 111, BANKING
- V.1, Entry 112, BANK NOTES.
- V.1, Entry 113, BANKRUPTCY.
- V.1, Entry 114, BANKRUPTCY, National.
- V.1, Entry 115, BANKS.
- V.1, Entry 116, BANKS, Functions of.
- V.1, Entry 117, BANKS OF ISSUE
- V.1, Entry 118, BANKS, Advantages of Savings.
- V.1, Entry 119, BANKS, History and Management of Savings,
- V.1, Entry 120, BAR
- V.1, Entry 121, BARNBURNERS
- V.1, Entry 122, BARRICADE
- V.1, Entry 123, BARTER.
- V.1, Entry 124, BASTILLE
- V.1, Entry 125, BAVARIA
- V.1, Entry 126, BELGIUM
- V.1, Entry 127, BELL
- V.1, Entry 128, BELLIGERENTS
- V.1, Entry 129, BENTON
- V.1, Entry 130, BERLIN DECREE
- V.1, Entry 131, BILL
- V.1, Entry 132, BILL OF EXCHANGE
- V.1, Entry 133, BILL OF RIGHTS
- V.1, Entry 134, BILLION
- V.1, Entry 135, BILLS
- V.1, Entry 136, BI-METALLISM.
- V.1, Entry 137, BIRNEY
- V.1, Entry 138, BLACK COCKADE
- V.1, Entry 139, BLACK CODE.
- V.1, Entry 140, BLACK REPUBLICAN.
- V.1, Entry 141, BLAINE
- V.1, Entry 142, BLAIR
- V.1, Entry 143, BLOCKADE
- V.1, Entry 144, BLOODY BILL
- V.1, Entry 145, BLUE LAWS
- V.1, Entry 146, BLUE LIGHT
- V.1, Entry 147, BOARD OF TRADE.
- V.1, Entry 148, BOLIVIA
- V.1, Entry 149, BOOTY
- V.1, Entry 150, BORDER RUFFIANS
- V.1, Entry 151, BORDER STATES
- V.1, Entry 152, BOURGEOISIE
- V.1, Entry 153, BOUTWELL
- V.1, Entry 154, BRAHMANISM.
- V.1, Entry 155, BRAZIL
- V.1, Entry 156, BRECKENRIDGE
- V.1, Entry 157, BROAD SEAL WAR
- V.1, Entry 158, BROKERS
- V.1, Entry 159, BROOKS
- V.1, Entry 160, BROWN
- V.1, Entry 161, BUCHANAN
- V.1, Entry 162, BUCKSHOT WAR
- V.1, Entry 163, BUCKTAILS
- V.1, Entry 164, BUDDHISM
- V.1, Entry 165, BUDGET
- V.1, Entry 166, BULL
- V.1, Entry 167, BUNDESRATH
- V.1, Entry 168, BUREAUCRACY
- V.1, Entry 169, BURGESSES
- V.1, Entry 170, BURLINGAME
- V.1, Entry 171, BURR
- V.1, Entry 172, BUTLER, Benj. F.
- V.1, Entry 173, BUTLER, William Orlando
- V.1, Entry 174, CACHET
- V.1, Entry 175, CÆSARISM
- V.1, Entry 176, CALENDAR
- V.1, Entry 177, CALHOUN
- V.1, Entry 178, CALIFORNIA
- V.1, Entry 179, CANADA
- V.1, Entry 180, CANALS
- V.1, Entry 181, CANON LAW
- V.1, Entry 182, CAPITAL
- V.1, Entry 183, CAPITAL
- V.1, Entry 184, CAPITULATION
- V.1, Entry 185, CARICATURE
- V.1, Entry 186, CARPET BAGGERS
- V.1, Entry 187, CARTEL
- V.1, Entry 188, CASS
- V.1, Entry 189, CASUS BELLI
- V.1, Entry 190, CAUCUS
- V.1, Entry 191, CAUCUS SYSTEM
- V.1, Entry 192, CAUSE AND EFFECT IN POLITICS.
- V.1, Entry 193, CELIBACY, Clerical
- V.1, Entry 194, CELIBACY, Political Aspects of.
- V.1, Entry 195, CELTS.
- V.1, Entry 196, CENSURE.
- V.1, Entry 197, CENSURE OF MORALS.
- V.1, Entry 198, CENSURES
- V.1, Entry 199, CENSUS.
- V.1, Entry 200, CENTRALIZATION and DECENTRALIZATION.
- V.1, Entry 201, CEREMONIAL
- V.1, Entry 202, CHAMBER OF COMMERCE.
- V.1, Entry 203, CHARGÉ D'AFFAIRES.
- V.1, Entry 204, CHARITY, Private.
- V.1, Entry 205, CHARITY, Public.
- V.1, Entry 206, CHARITY, State.
- V.1, Entry 207, CHASE
- V.1, Entry 208, CHECKS AND BALANCES.
- V.1, Entry 209, CHEROKEE CASE
- V.1, Entry 210, CHESAPEAKE CASE.
- V.1, Entry 211, CHILI.
- V.1, Entry 212, CHINA
- V.1, Entry 213, CHINESE IMMIGRATION.
- V.1, Entry 214, CHIVALRY.
- V.1, Entry 215, CHRISTIANITY.
- V.1, Entry 216, CHURCH AND STATE
- V.1, Entry 217, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 218, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 219, CHURCH
- V.1, Entry 220, CHURCHES AND RELIGIONS
- V.1, Entry 221, CHURCHES
- V.1, Entry 222, CINCINNATI
- V.1, Entry 223, CIPHER DISPATCHES AND DECIPHERMENT
- V.1, Entry 224, CIRCULATION OF WEALTH.
- V.1, Entry 225, CITIES
- V.1, Entry 226, CITIES AND TOWNS.
- V.1, Entry 227, CIVIL ADMINISTRATION
- V.1, Entry 228, CIVIL LIST.
- V.1, Entry 229, CIVIL RIGHTS BILL
- V.1, Entry 230, CIVIL SERVICE REFORM
- V.1, Entry 231, CIVILIZATION
- V.1, Entry 232, CLAY
- V.1, Entry 233, CLEARING, AND CLEARING HOUSES
- V.1, Entry 234, CLERICALISM
- V.1, Entry 235, CLIENTÈLE AND CUSTOM
- V.1, Entry 236, CLIMATE
- V.1, Entry 237, CLIMATE
- V.1, Entry 238, CLINTON
- V.1, Entry 239, CLINTON, George
- V.1, Entry 240, CL�TURE
- V.1, Entry 241, COASTING TRADE
- V.1, Entry 242, COCHIN CHINA
- V.1, Entry 243, COINAGE
- V.1, Entry 244, COLFAX
- V.1, Entry 245, COLONIZATION SOCIETY
- V.1, Entry 246, COLORADO
- V.1, Entry 247, COLOMBIA
- V.1, Entry 248, COMMERCE.
- V.1, Entry 249, COMMERCIAL CRISES
- V.1, Entry 250, COMMISSION
- V.1, Entry 251, COMMITTEES
- V.1, Entry 252, COMMON LAW
- V.1, Entry 253, COMMONS
- V.1, Entry 254, COMMUNE
- V.1, Entry 255, COMMUNISM
- V.1, Entry 256, COMPETITION.
- V.1, Entry 257, COMPROMISES
- V.1, Entry 258, COMPULSORY CIRCULATION
- V.1, Entry 259, COMPULSORY EDUCATION
- V.1, Entry 260, CONCESSION
- V.1, Entry 261, CONCLAVE.
- V.1, Entry 262, CONCLUSUM
- V.1, Entry 284, CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES
- V.1, Entry 301, CONVENTION
- V.1, Entry 375, DISTILLED SPIRITS
- V.1, Entry 384, DOMINION OF CANADA
- V.2, Entry 7, EDUCATION
- V.2, Entry 18, EMBARGO
- V.2, Entry 33, EXCHANGE
- V.2, Entry 35, EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS
- V.2, Entry 37, EXCHANGE OF WEALTH
- V.2, Entry 121, GREAT BRITAIN
- V.2, Entry 130, HABEAS CORPUS
- V.2, Entry 180, INDUSTRIAL ARBITRATION AND CONCILIATION
- V.2, Entry 225, JUSTICE, Department of
- V.2, Entry 246, LAW
- V.2, Entry 364, NEW GRANADA
- V.2, Entry 379, NULLIFICATION
- V.3, Entry 4, OCEANICA
- V.3, Entry 29, PARIS MONETARY CONFERENCE
- V.3, Entry 32, PARLIAMENTARY LAW.
- V.3, Entry 116, RACES OF MANKIND
- V.3, Entry 137, REPUBLICAN PARTY
- V.3, Entry 155, ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH.
- V.3, Entry 195, SLAVERY
- V.3, Entry 278, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
- V. 2, List of Writers
- V. 3, List of Writers
- V. 3, List of American Writers
CIPHER DISPATCHES AND DECIPHERMENT. The art of deciphering secret manuscripts has at all times played an important part in political matters. If we are to believe Comiers d’Embrun, the Hebrews were acquainted with cryptography or the art of using ciphers, therefore with decipherment which is its immediate consequence. The early Christians, according to P. Alex. de Rhodes, used convention signs to keep a knowledge of their affairs from the curiosity of their persecutors.
—Suetonius informs us in his life of the first Cæsars that the emperors wrote to their generals and confidants, transposing the letters of the alphabet. If this be the case, it is quite possible that Julius Cæsar invented the system of ciphers which bears his name. The following is a sketch of the system: A number of conventional signs are made to correspond to the letters of the alphabet, or, better still, with these same letters arranged in a different order, for example:
a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, x, y, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, x, y, z. z, a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k.
Thus if we wish to write in cipher, “Put a vase of roses on your balcony; I shall see that it is time to march;” we should write: “bgf 1 hlep aq daepe az jagd mlxnazj; t eslxx epp fslf tf te ftyp fa yldns.” The same result will be obtained by conventional signs corresponding to the letters of the alphabet. It is needless to add that in the first case the letters in changed order, in the second the conventional signs, form the secret of the cipher, which should always be known by the person who wishes to use this mode of writing.
—The Japanese and Chinese were instrumental in causing a further development in cryptography without knowing it. The signs used in the writing of these people run vertically from above downward and from below upward; from this originated the idea of the Japanese method, as calculated to puzzle Europeans, whose writing is horizontal.
—Here is as example of this method. “The liberty of man imposes on him as many duties as it gives him rights.”
t s e a s h o s s i e p o e t s l m n i g s i i h t i t b n i u v h e a m d e g r m a y s i t f s n h r y o m a i m
These are simply the letters used in writing the above sentence, placed in order after each other from above downward and from below upward. This cipher becomes, as we see, mere child’s play unless it is complicated by some combination.
—In the steganography which he published, Scott considers the method of count Gronsfeld and that of lord Bacon as undecipherable by any one who has not the key to it. Of these two systems we shall take that of lord Bacon, whose originality strikes us, while at the same time we acknowledge its tediousness of execution. The following is its conventional alphabet, each letter of which answers respectively to the ordinary letters of the alphabet:
If we wished to write this sentence: “The enemy is there, be on your guard,” we would do it as follows: “abbbb baaba abaaa abaaa bbbab abaaa bbbaa abaab babaa babbb abbbb baaba abaaa babba abaaa, aaaab abaaa bbbba bbbab abaab bbbba aabbb babba baaab aabbb aaaaa babba aabaa.”
—This style of ciphering is surely original. Besides, it has this advantage, that it can be carried on under the appearance of a document not having any importance, the letters of which, marked or not by a conventional sign, indicate whether they represent a or b; thence a grouping by fives, the translation of which becomes easy by the aid of the alphabet. This system has a certain resemblance to that attributed to Julius Cæesar, differing from it, however, essentially by the repetition and mingling of the letters
b; this mingling is well adapted to puzzle the most careful research.
—It is not necessary to say that other signs may be substituted for the letters of the alphabet used in the method we have just mentioned, such for instance, as the Arabic numerals.
—Secret writings being of frequent use in political life, it is often important to be able to find the secret of the cipher which hides the thoughts or projects of its author. We can not here give the reader a complete treatise on
cryptography; we must confine ourselves to placing at his disposition certain linguistic observations which become so many means of arriving at the understanding of the greater part of secret writing; the rest is an affair of sagacity and patience.
Remarks on the construction of words. The German Language. The only letter standing alone is
o; monosyllables are very rare; double letters quite frequent at the end of words: the
e is often repeated especially in long words;
i always in the middle of words of three letters;
ck most frequent at the end of words;
sch united to
l, m, n;r united to
bb in the middle of words;
t united to
ff;oth, ich, very often at the end;
b, l, g, k, p, q, x, z, the rarest of consonants.
English. The words of one letter are
I, a, O;y often appears as final;
o doubles and shares this peculiarity with
e, from which it will be easily distinguished if attention be paid to the fact that it is always united to
f in the word of two letters
of; it is often found also with
w;e is distinguished in cipher dispatches from double consonants, because it is repeated oftener than any other letter.
Italian and Spanish. Italian has a strong resemblance to Spanish, but is distinguished from it by the length of certain words and by the frequency of double letters in the middle of words.
O is oftener repeated than any other letter;
e, i, next, the latter sometimes doubled, the same as
o, u. In Spanish,
o is very often followed by
e; but the latter principally in the middle of words, the other chiefly at the end; the words of one letter are
a, o, y.
French. French words end most frequently in
e, which is often followed by
nt;ou is met in words of four syllables; the vowels, especially
e, are repeated oftener than any other letter; there is no word without a vowel; a word of one letter is always a vowel, or a consonant with an apostrophe;
q is always followed by
—It is evident that the process of deciphering without the key differs somewhat in each language, varying with its characteristics.
—Let us try to decipher the sentence: “bgf l hlep aq daepe az jagd mlxnazj; t eslxx epp fslf tf te ftyp fa yldns,” according to Cæsar’s method. We first make a list of the letters in the sentence, noting how often each recurs, as follows: b, once; g, twice; f, 6 times; l, 6 times; h, once; e, 6 times; p, 5 times; a, 5 times; q, once; j, twice; m, once; x, 3 times; n, twice; z, twice; t, 4 times; s, 3 times; y, twice; d, 3 times. Remembering that
I are the only words (except
O which would be rarely used in a cipher dispatch) of one letter in English, we know that
t must be these two. Suppose
i, f must be
n, s, or
tf because these are the only letters which can follow
i in a word of two letters except
f which is the cipher letter. We shall call it
te may be
fa must be
o, for only
o can follow
t in a word of two letters as may be seen by experiment;
pp in epp is
o are the only vowels which can be doubled, and
oo could not form a word after
s. Now we know that
l, t, f, e, a, and
a, i, t, s, o and
e. After making the changes the sentence becomes bgt a hase oq doses oz jogd maxnoxj i ssaxx see tsat it is tiye to yadus. In the word ssaxx it is most probable the
ll, for a double vowel could not follow
a, and by using the
ll and changing the second
h we have
shall instead of ssaxx, and
that instead of tsat. In tiye
y could in any connection be only
d, l, m, n or
r; here it is clearly
m which gives
oq whatever be the connection would be either
f, n, r or
x; here we shall use
f: and the
oz is either
n; call it
n. In the first word bgt
g must be the vowel
u, for we know the others;
b is either
p, let us use
c; we have now
cut instead of
bgt and the word jogd becomes
d can not be
t, for we know these; it is
r, for this is the only letter left that could follow
j is either
y; let us take
y. We have now
your. Knowing or supposing that:
we make the substitutions and the sentence stands: “Cut a hase of roses on your malcony; I shall see that it is time to marnh.” It is clear that
h in the third word stands for
c, b can not be
c, therefore the first word is put, not
—If we wished to send the following dispatch in French;
Placez un vase de fleurs sur votre fenêtre; nous saurons qu’il est temps de se mettre en marche, we would write it in this way according to the first cipher alphabet given above: “Bxlnpk gz hlep op qxpgde egd hafdp qpzpfdp zage elgdaze cgtx pof fpybe op ep ypffdp pz yldnsp.”
—To decipher this we proceed as follows, remarking only that the reader, by study and experience, might find some other way to decipher it. We make a list of the letters contained in the dispatch, noting the number of times each letter is repeated, thus: b, twice; x, 3 times; l, 4 times; n, twice; p, 16 times; k, once; g, 6 times; z, 5 times; h, twice; e, 9 times; o, twice; q, twice; d, 7 times; a, 3 times; f, 6 times; c, once, t, once; y, 3 times; s, once. We may remark that p occurs 16 times, hence it is very likely a vowel, and probably the letter
e. Let us see whether this hypothesis is well founded, and take the shortest words:
op, ep, pz. If
p is an
e, let us suppose, to shorten our demonstration, that
en, since it is one of the French words of two letters beginning with
z is an
n;op, ep, will therefore be one of the words
ce, di, je, le, me, te, se, the only words of two letters in French ending in
e. But in the dispatch we see
op, immediately preceding
ep which has only two letters and
de is the only word that can go before a word of two letters: therefore, if
p is an
e in the word
op,o, must be a
—Let us now try to find out what
e is in the word
ep. It is not a vowel. As
e is found at the end of many words in the dispatch, we may presume that it is an
s;ep would therefore stand for
se until proof to the contrary.
Gz is another word of two letters, the last letter of which we know to stand for
n, whence we conclude that
g can be only a vowel, and consequently
gz must be one of the following words,
an, in, on, un, the only French words of one syllable ending in
n. We may reject
in which means nothing; in French,
an never occurs after a word so long as
bxlnpk; therefore, there are left only
un.G is therefore either
u; but which? We can not yet decide. Let us take a word in which it occurs, and select, as far as we can, a word which contains the letters presumed to be known. Say the
zage. Substituting in this word the letters already known, we have
naus;naus has a close resemblance to
nous; we may conclude that
u, and we may also add that
—Let us take the little word
egd: the third letter
d is either a
r, for only
suc can have this form. We shall see this further on. In
pef, the first two letters are
es; we are led to think that the last is a
t, for the word
est is the only word of three letters in French beginning with
—Let us now take longer words, say
hafdp. We know
afdp which suggests
otre, but only the latter can be taken. Then the word becomes
h…otre which has only two analogues in French,
votre. Now, as we have seen,
n is represented by
h is necessarily a
v. We may therefore add to the foregoing letters, instead of
f, d, h, their values
t, r, v.
—In the word
ypffdp,y is the only unknown letter. Substituting the equivalents already known, we have
y…ettre, which can mean only
se “lettre” does not mean anything. Everything leads us to believe that
y is an
—The word we have just deciphered almost translates
qpzpfdp, for we find
fenêtre; in like manner
fleurs; in like manner also
fpybe stands for
—We have deciphered the letters
p, y, o, d, f, z, a, e, g, q, b, h, x; with this key let us try to decipher the whole dispatch. By the substitution of known for unknown values we find
pllnek un rlse de fleurs sur votre fenêtre, nous slurons cutl est temps de se mettre en marnse. This is not so obscure as it may seem at first. With a little study it becomes apparent that
l, c, t, stand for
a, q, i. And thus we have:
nous saurons qu’il est temps. But
pllnek un vase de fleurs stands,
a priori, for
placez, etc. No great effort of imagination is required to translate “se mettre en
se mettre en marche.
—What we have just explained will suffice to show the reader the possibility of deciphering. This methods is without doubt purely empirical, but it appears to have been sufficient for the cases presented up to our day.
—To prevent the deciphering of dispatches, combinations of every kind have been imagined, books of signs, even special dictionaries have been published by means of which the secrecy of a dispatch is guaranteed. One of these dictionaries, which seems well planned, has appeared in Paris, published by Berger-Levrault & Co., under the title of
Dictionnaire pour la Correspondance télégraphique secrète, by a secretary of legation.